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People and Cultures of Hawai`i

People and Cultures of Hawai`i: The Evolution of Culture and Ethnicity

John F. McDermott
Naleen Naupaka Andrade
Copyright Date: 2011
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    People and Cultures of Hawai`i
    Book Description:

    This is a significant update to the highly influential textPeople and Cultures of Hawaii: A Psychocultural Profile.Since its publication in 1980, the immigrant groups it discusses in depth have matured and new ones have been added to the mix. The present work tracks the course of these changes over the past twenty years, constructing a historical understanding of each group as it evolved from race to ethnicity to culture.

    Individual chapters begin with an overview of one of fifteen groups. Following the development of its unique ethnocultural identity, distinctive character traits such as temperament and emotional expression are explored-as well as ethnic stereotypes. Also discussed are modifications to the group's ethnocultural identity over time and generational change-which traits may have changed over generations and which are more hardwired or enduring. An important feature of each chapter is the focus on the group's family social structure, generational and gender roles, power distribution, and central values and life goals. Readers will also find a description of the group's own internal social class structure, social and political strategies, and occupational and educational patterns. Finally, contributors consider how a particular ethnic group has blended into Hawai'i's culturally sensitive society.

    People and Cultures of Hawai'i: The Evolution of Culture and Ethnicitywill, like its predecessor, fill an important niche in understanding the history of different ethnic groups in Hawai'i.

    eISBN: 978-0-8248-6026-4
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
    John F. McDermott and Naleen Naupaka Andrade
  4. Introduction
    (pp. xi-xxiii)
    John F. McDermott and Naleen Naupaka Andrade

    America is rapidly changing its color. Population projections tell us that by 2050, the white majority will be replaced by a plurality of minority groups: Hispanic, black, Asian, and white. Strategic models are needed to plan for this new pattern in the makeup of our country. Hawai‘i serves as a cross-cultural laboratory offering one such model, the evolution of a multiracial society into a multicultural one, a model we call the “Hawaiian Stewpot.”

    How did it happen? This book tells the story.

    To begin, the history of Hawai‘i is very different from the rest of the United States.

    In colonial...

  5. [Map]
    (pp. xxiv-xxvi)
  6. Chronology
    (pp. xxvii-xxviii)
  7. Chapter 1 The Hawaiians
    (pp. 1-31)
    Naleen Naupaka Andrade and Cathy Kaheau‘ilani Bell

    It is axiomatic that the ideals and morals of tolerance, acceptance, diversity, and multiculturalism infusing Hawai‘i society exist because of thekānaka maolior Native Hawaiians. As Hawai‘i’s indigenous first nations people, their history and sociocultural development created the ethnocultural template influencing every subsequent group to the Islands.

    How did this happen?

    This chapter attempts to answer this question. It examines the long temporal sweep of history, interdigitated with the compelling immediacy of how individual Hawaiians (and non-Hawaiians) were and continue to be personally affected.

    The Hawaiian ethnocultural template was formed by the twelfth century. It would be reshaped and...

  8. Chapter 2 The Euro-Americans
    (pp. 32-57)
    Kathryn Braun and Deborah Goebert

    In this chapter, we examine Euro-Americans or Caucasians in Hawai‘i, those individuals who can trace their ancestry to white Europeans, commonly known in the State of Hawai‘i as haoles (“haole” has been pluralized in this text as “haoles” in keeping with English-language conventions; in the Hawaiian language, however, the plural ofhaolewould behaole). We begin with an exploration of the term “haole,” followed by a brief history of haoles in Hawai‘i. We then present some of the values common to white culture that influence haole behavior and are reflected in U.S. social policies. We then provide a demographic...

  9. Chapter 3 The Chinese
    (pp. 58-80)
    Victor Yee and Kwong-Yen Lum

    The history of Chinese immigration to Hawai‘i is unique in the history of Chinese moving to the West, inasmuch as those who came to Hawai‘i were not immigrating to the United States of America but to the Kingdom of Hawai‘i, with its ethnic mix of peoples quite different from those of the Western states, which had seen a large influx of Chinese men by mid-nineteenth century. Immigrating to Hawai‘i, a society fundamentally less hostile to them, enabled the Chinese to adapt more easily than their mainland U.S. counterparts to the host culture. The ethos of Hawai‘i gave the descendants of...

  10. Chapter 4 The Portuguese
    (pp. 81-106)
    Naleen Naupaka Andrade and Stephanie T. Nishimura

    Portuguese from the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores were the largest group of Europeans to immigrate to Hawai‘i during the sugar plantation era. Between 1878 and 1913, approximately 25,000 Portuguese men, women, and children came as plantation contract laborers to work on the islands of O‘ahu, Kaua‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island (also called the Big Island).

    Before 1905, most of these immigrants had been born into the peasantry within Portugal’s absolute monarchy. Locally, they were governed by hereditary landowners who controlled island commerce through the commodities produced on their lands. Major exports included oranges, lemons, and wheat from...

  11. Chapter 5 The Japanese
    (pp. 107-130)
    Courtenay Matsu, Junji Takeshita, Satoru Izutsu and Earl Hishinuma

    The largest number of Japanese came to Hawai‘i from Japan as contract laborers, beginning in 1885 during the reign of King David Kalakaua. In the main, these laborers were farmers who were assigned to various plantations in the Hawaiian Islands. Large numbers came from the Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Hiroshima, and Okinawa prefectures. Few arrived from the urban areas. By 1920 the Japanese constituted 42.7 percent of the population, and there was growing concern that the Japanese in Hawai‘i would maintain loyalty toward Japan.¹ Individuals born in Japan who immigrated to Hawai‘i were considered the first generation (or Issei). Subsequent generations included...

  12. Chapter 6 The Okinawans
    (pp. 131-151)
    Ryokichi Higashionna, Gilbert Ikehara and Leslie Matsukawa

    Today it is estimated that there are over 50,000 people who can trace their roots to Okinawa. Though the evolution of the Okinawan people of Hawai‘i has occurred, there is evidence of the persistence of possibly hardwired biological characteristics, traits, and behaviors that have been retained, leading to hardiness and a resilience of body, mind, and spirit. Okinawans are known for their longevity and good health into their old age.Yuimaru,a spirit of working together for the benefit of all, andichariba chode,seeing everyone as brothers and sisters, are two of the persisting values that are very similar...

  13. Chapter 7 The Hispanics
    (pp. 152-175)
    Lisa Sánchez-Johnsen

    The terms “Hispanic” and “Latino” are used to describe those whose ethnic origins can be traced to Latin America: Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central or South America, or other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino countries/regions. The terms do not include Brazilians, since their background can be traced to Portuguese origin. Although there are regional differences in the use of these terms, in Hawai‘i there does not seem to be any clear preference. Therefore, in this chapter, both terms will be used interchangeably.

    In the United States, over 45 million people (about 16 percent of the population) are Hispanic, making them the...

  14. Chapter 8 The Koreans
    (pp. 176-200)
    Jane Chung-Do, John Huh and Mark Kang

    In order to best understand Koreans and Korean culture in Hawai‘i, one has to first understand the historical context of the nation. Korea is among the oldest civilizations in the world, tracing their heritage to 2333 B.C. It is a small country in size and population compared to its surrounding neighbors, Japan, China, and Russia. Consequently, Korea has been repeatedly invaded and under the control of Mongols, Chinese, and Japanese.¹ This repeated occupation has had a tremendous influence on the culture and character of Koreans. They pride themselves on their resiliency, persistence, and fighting spirit. According to the 2000 U.S....

  15. Chapter 9 The Filipinos
    (pp. 201-219)
    Anthony P. S. Guerrero, Ricardo Bayola and Celia Ona

    The Filipinos in Hawai‘i are originally from the Philippines, an archipelago of over seven thousand islands in the western Pacific Ocean, south of Taiwan and north of Indonesia and eastern Malaysia. While proto-Australoid peoples inhabited parts of the Philippines as remotely as 50,000 B.C., current Filipinos are mostly descended from seafarers who left their putative Austronesian homeland in Taiwan around 4000 B.C. Filipinos therefore share a common ancestry—remarkably reflected in biological markers, culture, and language—with other Austronesian peoples, who are spread widely throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans: from Madagascar in the far west to Polynesia (including New...

  16. Chapter 10 The Blacks
    (pp. 220-239)
    John W. Hawkins and Emily A. Hawkins

    The history of blacks¹ in Hawai‘i is primarily a story of independent arrivals, not the story of migrant laborers or missionaries who came in groups. For that reason, their story is very unlike the other groups in Hawai‘i. Until World War II, these arrivals came from the U.S. mainland to settle in a place where they could work and live without the fear of slavery and its aftermath. Each one tells an individual tale, and those who stayed became part of Hawaiian society in their own way. After the war, those who stayed once again blended into Hawaiian society, often...

  17. Chapter 11 The Samoans
    (pp. 240-261)
    John R. Bond and Faapisa M. Soli

    The Samoan archipelago is comprised of nine main volcanic islands located in the central Pacific about 10 degrees south of the equator. It is situated almost precisely in the center of a vast equilateral triangle that spans much of the South Pacific and stretches across the equator into the north-central Pacific. This Polynesian Triangle is anchored on the southwest corner by New Zealand; its base stretches five thousand miles eastward to Easter Island, and its apex is found approximately an equal distance to the north in Hawai‘i. The first recorded European contact with the Samoan archipelago occurred in 1722, a...

  18. Chapter 12 The Thais
    (pp. 262-269)
    Michael Fukuda and Anongnart “Mickie” Carriker

    “Southeast Asia” has been used for decades by Western historians to represent the geographic region east of India and south of China, and as such, the term covers a vast land area, numerous political states, and a multitude of peoples. Countries within the Southeast Asia categorization include Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The term and classification continues to be used, perhaps simply to differentiate countries in the region from those in East Asia (e.g., China, Korea, and Japan). Whereas the distinctions among East Asian countries and cultures have long been acknowledged...

  19. Chapter 13 The Vietnamese
    (pp. 270-282)
    Christine Su and Paul Tran

    While many Vietnamese who now live in Hawai‘i also came to the United States by boat, they set out from their homeland neither because they were curious about foreign lands, fueled by religious conviction, nor anticipating employment. Rather, they left because they had to: War in mainland Southeast Asia in the 1960s and 1970s, particularly in Vietnam, led thousands to flee and seek refuge elsewhere. Beginning in 1975, a mass exodus of refugees landed initially in Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, and even Indonesia. Because many escaped on rickety fishing boats or wooden rafts, as news of their attempts to escape...

  20. Chapter 14 The Cambodians
    (pp. 283-294)
    Christine Su

    During the second or third weekend of the month of April, surrounded by the beauty of the Wai‘anae Range, Khmer families and friends gather early in the morning to pray, chant, and make offerings to monks dressed in saffron robes.¹ In the afternoon, adorned in beautiful silks or other traditional clothing, they begin to dance, sing, perform dramas and comedic skits, play traditional games, and eat delicious Khmer food well into the night. For many, this celebration is much like those they experienced back in Cambodia, out in the countryside, sounds of Khmer music filling the air, sharing simple good...

  21. Chapter 15 The Micronesians
    (pp. 295-315)
    Neal Palafox, Sheldon Riklon, Sekap Esah, Davis Rehuher, William Swain, Kristina Stege, Dale Naholowaa, Allen Hixon and Kino Ruben

    Micronesia, as drawn by cartographers, describes a geocultural area in the western and central Pacific, just north and south of the equator. Melanesia and Polynesia refer to other geocultural groups of islands in the central and eastern regions the Pacific Ocean, respectively.

    The islands of Micronesia number approximately two thousand and stretch for three thousand miles across the western Pacific. The Micronesian region includes five countries and two U.S.–affiliated territories. These are, from west to east, the Republic of Palau, Guam (a U.S. territory), the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, a U.S. commonwealth), the Federated States of...

  22. Conclusion
    (pp. 316-322)
    John F. McDermott and Naleen Naupaka Andrade

    Do the chapters in this book tell a convincing story? It is the story of how new groups arrived successively in Hawai‘i, each with a different history, and engaged with each other, leading to cultural and psychological changes. This process we have called the Hawaiian Stew Pot, in which the more enduring characteristics of each group are visibly retained, while others blend together indistinguishably into the stock or soup of the stew.

    If so, then just how did it evolve?

    Consider a historical overview. Over nearly two millennia, the first Polynesians and their Hawaiian descendants established a society that would...

  23. Glossary
    (pp. 323-328)
  24. Contributors
    (pp. 329-334)
  25. Index
    (pp. 335-347)
  26. Back Matter
    (pp. 348-349)