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Non-Traditional Security Issues in North Korea

Non-Traditional Security Issues in North Korea

Copyright Date: 2013
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    Non-Traditional Security Issues in North Korea
    Book Description:

    The concept of security has undergone significant change in the past few decades. Traditionally thought of in terms of the state-centric, militarily focused, realist discourse, the concept of security has been broadened to include a greater number of potential threats and an increased number of relevant actors. Yet, despite the great changes in security scholarship, the vast majority of studies on North Korea continue to focus primarily on the country's nuclear weapons program, its military, and other traditional security issues surrounding Pyongyang. While North Korea captures headlines with its aggressive behavior and growing nuclear arsenal, the ground-level threats to average, everyday North Koreans go largely unnoticed. This groundbreaking volume seeks to refocus research on North Korean security from the traditional to largely unexplored non-traditional security (NTS) issues.In the wake of political succession to Kim Jung Un, the issue of non-traditional security is increasingly important. From the lasting effects of the famine of the 1990s to continued food shortages and the growing marketization of North Korean society, the Pyongyang regime is facing diverse and unprecedented challenges. This book offers cutting-edge analyses of emerging North Korean NTS issues by the world's leading specialists in the field. It looks at these issues and their effects at the local, regional, and international level, as well as examining the international community's efforts to promote an NTS approach to North Korea. More specifically, the volume addresses the traditional and non-traditional security paradigms, energy security, gender security, transnational organized crime, the internal and external dimensions of North Korea's food security, the "Responsibility to Protect," refugee issues and international law, and the role of NGOs in promoting NTS in North Korea.As the global community begins to move toward a more people-centered approach to security and foreign policy, work such as that presented in this thought-provoking volume will be increasingly vital to scholars, policymakers, and interested citizens.Contributors:Tsuneo Akaha, Peter Hayes, Brendan Howe, W. Randall Ireson, David C. Kang, Shin-wha Lee, Mark Manyin, Kyung-Ae Park, Scott Snyder, Jae-Jung Suh, David von Hippel.15 charts

    eISBN: 978-0-8248-3782-2
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-x)
    Kyung-Ae Park

    • CHAPTER 1 Rethinking National and Human Security in North Korea via Non-Traditional Security Issues
      (pp. 3-22)

      Most discussion of North Korea (the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) focuses on traditional security issues. The Korean People’s Army remains the target of obsessive analysis, for it is one of the most serious sources of threat to the peace and security of the neighboring countries. Its Special Forces receive special attention since they are deemed especially capable of wreaking havoc on South Korea’s defense. Its weapons of mass destruction and missiles top news headlines and the lists of national security concerns in many capitals worldwide. Movements of tanks, airplanes, and ships are scrutinized for any clues to the military’s...

    • CHAPTER 2 North Korea’s Energy Security: Challenges and Assistance Approaches
      (pp. 23-50)

      Energy-sector needs and requirements for energy security together constitute a critical dimension of the North Korean nuclear weapons challenge. Energy-sector issues—specifically, the difficulties of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in obtaining energy supplies and maintaining aging energy-supply infrastructure—have been a driver of its nuclear weapons policies. On the other side of the coin, addressing energy-sector needs in the DPRK has played, and will continue to play, a key role in working toward a solution of the DPRK nuclear weapons dilemma. Assuming—though it is hardly a given—that the current (as of this writing) crisis involving...

    • CHAPTER 3 Gender Security in North Korea
      (pp. 51-74)

      A mid growing criticism of the realist security discourse, the concept of security has undergone significant changes over the years. Many studies have argued that the principal unit of security analysis should not be confined to the state but should include society and the individual as well. In particular, the Copenhagen school and human-security scholars define security in terms of freedom from threats to the safety and welfare of society and the individual. They have widened the definition of security to include not only military but also political, economic, societal, and individual issues. The process of globalization has created new...

    • CHAPTER 4 Securitizing Transnational Organized Crime and North Korea’s Non-Traditional Security
      (pp. 75-99)

      In September 2005, the U.S. Treasury Department sanctioned a small bank in Macao named Banco Delta Asia (BDA), accusing it of laundering money for the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The repercussions were immediate and widespread: the bank itself was frozen out of global credit markets as other banks worried about the reputational effect of working with BDA. North Korea protested long and loud, arguing that no evidence of any crime had been provided. The general international community nodded in agreement that, once again, North Korea had been caught engaged in rogue activities as befits its reputation. Many U.S....

    • CHAPTER 5 Building Food Security in North Korea
      (pp. 100-132)

      For at least the past fifteen years the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) has not produced enough food to feed its population, and continuing production shortfalls since 1995 have not been covered by foreign aid or imports. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimated a shortfall of about 20 percent for 2010 and 14 percent for 2011.¹ Drought in May and June 2012 will likely affect production negatively for that year. The famine of the mid-1990s has been succeeded by chronic malnutrition. In accord with itsjuche(self-reliance) philosophy, DPRK policy has emphasized self-sufficient food...

    • CHAPTER 6 The External Dimension of North Korea’s Food Security: Securing Outside Supplies of Food, Fertilizer, and Fuel
      (pp. 133-154)

      Despite the Kim regime’s ideological emphasis onjuche, or “self-reliance,” the outside world has always been essential to food security in North Korea. During the decades of relative plenty, the 1950s through the mid-1980s, North Korea imported, at special “friendship prices,” important agricultural inputs such as fertilizer and fuel from patrons such as the Soviet Union. In the famine and postfamine years of the 1990s and the following decade, when domestic food production was woefully short of North Korea’s needs, the importance of inflows from the outside world increased. Indeed, a major priority of North Korean diplomacy in these years...


    • CHAPTER 7 The Responsibility to Protect and Its Limits in North Korea
      (pp. 157-182)

      “Rwanda’s genocide, massacres in Srebrenica, Cambodia’s killing fields, ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, the Holocaust: these experiences—both their human toll and the political and institutional failures they represent—have seared humanity.”¹ The responsibility to protect (RtoP) represents the international community’s most recent attempt to prevent the reoccurrence of these man-made crises. It establishes a norm that reaffirms the sovereign state’s primary responsibility to protect its own citizens, commits the international community to assist those states that are either unwilling or unable to do so, and authorizes the international community to intervene when the state has clearly failed to protect its...

    • CHAPTER 8 International Legal Perspectives on North Korean Refugee Issues
      (pp. 183-208)

      Under conditions of extreme poverty and devastating famine, many North Koreans have defected. If they make it to South Korea, they are almost always granted asylum and citizenship under the South Korean constitution. However, direct defection by means of crossing through the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), dotted with land mines, razor wire, and a heavy American and South Korean troop presence, is often an unfeasible choice. Most defectors have chosen an alternative route, illegally fleeing into mainland China. The number of defectors is widely estimated, ranging from several thousand, according to the South Korean government’s estimation, to hundreds of thousands, as...

    • CHAPTER 9 The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations in Protecting Pyongyang’s Non-Traditional Security
      (pp. 209-225)

      In a globalized and interconnected world, the role of civil society has expanded to the extent that nongovernmental actors have established agency in one form or another in an effort to address global problems, especially in the area of human security. Non-traditional security challenges are particularly amenable to problem-solving efforts on the part of nonstate actors, individuals, and associations precisely because the essential ingredient in addressing many of these problems is the building of capacity to address specific human needs, a response that does not depend exclusively on the state and may be more effectively provided at the level of...

    • CHAPTER 10 Toward the Enhancement of Non-Traditional Security in North Korea
      (pp. 226-248)

      Prussian General Carl von Clausewitz, the great military strategist, famously referred to war as “a mere continuation of policy by other means.” However, his preceding concept that “war is an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will” is equally important to this study.¹ When combined they present vital implications for our analysis of traditional and non-traditional security: namely, that in dealing with North Korea we are asked to consider strategic relationships, meaning (1) interaction with, and attempts to alter the rational payoffs of our opponent and (2) the relationships between the military and wider society....

    (pp. 249-256)
  7. INDEX
    (pp. 257-269)
  8. Back Matter
    (pp. 270-271)