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Academies and Society in Southern Sung China

Academies and Society in Southern Sung China

Linda Walton
Copyright Date: 1999
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  • Book Info
    Academies and Society in Southern Sung China
    Book Description:

    Academies belonged to a broad constellation of educational institutions that flourished in the Sung (960-1279), an era marked by profound changes in economy, technology, thought, and social and political order. This study, the first comprehensive look at the Sung academy movement, explains the phenomenon not only as a uh_product of intellectual changes, but also as part of broader social, economic, political, and cultural transformations taking place in Sung China. Academies and Society in Southern Sung China makes extensive use of commemorative inscriptions and other documentation on nearly 500 academies and thus provides a crucial historical perspective on the origins of this key institution.

    eISBN: 978-0-8248-6135-3
    Subjects: Education, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-VI)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. VII-VIII)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. IX-X)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 1-22)

    In 1259, Ma Kuang-tsu, prefect of Chien-k’ang (modern Nanking), assembled his colleagues to attend the opening convocation lecture in Spring Wind Hall at Illumined Way Academy, where the audience was said to number in the hundreds.¹ Chou Ying-ho, a protégé of Ma Kuang-tsu and headmaster of the academy, delivered the lecture.² Chou Ying-ho drew the topic for his talk from the opening passage of the ConfucianAnalects(“To learn with a constant perseverance and application”), exhorting his audience to take Confucius and the sages of antiquity as their guides in learning.³ He also quoted the eleventh-century philosopher Ch’eng Hao, whose...

  5. Part 1. Geographies:: Intellectual, Economic, and Sacred

    • 1 From Northern to Southern Sung: Academies and the True Way Movement
      (pp. 25-49)

      When the Southern Sung scholar Lü Tsu-ch’ien (1137–1181) looked back on the great academies of Northern Sung in his inscription for White Deer Grotto Academy, he summed up their development in the following way:

      At the beginning of the dynasty when people had just cast off the tribulations of warfare during the Five Dynasties period, scholars were still isolated. As things grew more settled, culture began to flourish. At first classicists [ju] made use of mountain retreats where they taught. The great teachers [gathered] as many as several thousand [students]. Sung-yang, Marchmount Hill, Sui-yang, and the “Grotto” [White Deer]...

    • 2 Shrines, Schools, and Shih: The Thirteenth-Century Academy Movement
      (pp. 50-86)

      Although intellectual geography continued to play a role in the thirteenth-century academy movement through the legacy of prominent teachers such as Chang Shih in Hu-nan and Chu Hsi in Fu-chien, academies also shared a common institutional character that transcended region. Academies were both regional institutions and sites for the construction of supraregional identity based as much on social class affinities as regional ones. While authors of commemorative inscriptions often referred to local geographical characteristics and wrote of the veneration of local scholars, emphasizing residence or native place, academies were also sites whereshihfrom many places congregated and where they...

    • 3 The Academy Movement: Economic and Sacred Geography
      (pp. 87-118)

      Academies were concentrated in the very regions of the Southern Sung empire known to be the most economically advanced, populous, and prosperous, and for which we have the best records: Chiang-hsi, Chiang-tung, Fu-chien, Che-tung, and Che-hsi. Hu-nan, Ssu-ch’uan, and Kuang-tung also have relatively high concentrations of academies.¹ Regional variations and patterns in the academy movement at times were due to the influence of particular individuals, such as Chang Shih in central Hu-nan or Chu Hsi in northwestern Fu-chien, each of whom gathered large numbers of followers and inspired the building of academies. In addition to “intellectual geography,” discussed in chapter...

  6. Part 2. Academies in the Society and Culture of the Southern Sung Shih

    • 4 Kin and Community: From Family School to Academy
      (pp. 121-149)

      As active as Chu Hsi and his followers were in promoting academies, they had no monopoly on the institution. While Chu Hsi may have seen the academy as a community institution that provided proper learning for theshih,in contrast to examination-oriented government schools, some Southern Sung lineages used family property and resources to found academies where their sons could be educated in preparation for taking the examinations. Academies dedicated exclusively to the education of family members were essentially private family schools known otherwise by terms such aschia-shu.Frequently, however, those attending family academies included affinal kin, and often...

    • 5 Social Integration and Cultural Legitimacy: Academies and the Community of Shih
      (pp. 150-172)

      By the Southern Sung, the local elite community included not only native residentshih,but also frequently others who resided there on either a temporary or relatively permanent basis. There are many examples ofshihresiding more or less permanently, without holding office, in areas other than where they were officially registered.¹ The termchi-chü(sojourner) was used already in the late Northern Sung to describeshihwith official status but no current administrative appointment who continued to reside where they had previously held office.² The proliferation of academies in the Southern Sung can be accounted for in part by...

    • 6 Academies and the Learning of the Shih ca. 1225–1275
      (pp. 173-198)

      Although few records remain of the content of academy teaching in the thirteenth century, fifteen extant lectures, ten of which were given at Illumined Way Academy, suggest how philosophical concepts were transmitted to academy audiences by both scholars invited to lecture and officials who served as academy administrators. Through interpretations of classical texts that validated the role of theshihin Southern Sung society, lectures given at thirteenth-century academies articulated the ideological basis of a newshihidentity. Lecturers concentrated almost exclusively on discussion of passages from theFour Books.A text was selected from one of theFour Books...

  7. Conclusion
    (pp. 199-214)

    Benjamin Schwartz noted long ago the tension between the demands of personal self-cultivation and public service that was central to Confucianism.¹ After the examination system was introduced in the T’ang, education was tied to the process of recruitment and selection for government office, thus privileging public service over personal self-cultivation. To prepare for the examinations, however, many students sought instruction from scholars in secluded retreats who carried on a tradition of private education that was linked to personal self-cultivation. The origins of academies lie in this tradition of private education, transformed during the Five Dynasties-Northern Sung era, when academies developed...

  8. Appendix: Income and Expenditures for Illumined Way Academy
    (pp. 215-218)
  9. Notes
    (pp. 219-270)
  10. Glossary
    (pp. 271-282)
  11. Bibliography
    (pp. 283-296)
  12. Index
    (pp. 297-310)