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Shaping History

Shaping History: The Role of Newspapers in Hawai`i

Helen Geracimos Chapin
Copyright Date: 1996
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt6wqtm0
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  • Book Info
    Shaping History
    Book Description:

    Just a decade after the first printing press arrived in Honolulu in 1820, American Protestant missionaries produced the first newspaper in the islands. More than a thousand daily, weekly, or monthly papers in nine different languages have appeared since then. Today they are often considered a secondary source of information, but in their heyday Hawai‘i’s newspapers formed one of the most diversified, vigorous, and influential presses in the world. In this original and timely work, Helen Geracimos Chapin charts the role Hawai‘i’s newspapers played in shaping major historic events in the islands and how the rise of the newspaper abetted the rise of American influence in Hawai‘i. Shaping History is based on a wide selection of written and oral sources, including extensive interviews with journalists and others working in the newspaper industry. Students of journalism and Hawaiian history will find this comprehensive history of Hawai‘i’s newspapers especially valuable.

    eISBN: 978-0-8248-6427-9
    Subjects: History, Language & Literature

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-VI)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. VII-X)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. XI-XIV)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 1-12)

    There are many histories of Hawai‘i. But there are no assessments of the role that newspapers have played in that turbulent and contested history. Yet newspapers have not just recorded events since their inception in 1834, they have been active agents in shaping Hawaiian history. By newspapers, I mean publications with titles and mastheads, without covers, appearing serially and regularly on newsprint. The size and content vary, but newspapers are recognizable by their format and topical subject matter.

    To understand the role of newspapers, one should consider them within their own historical context. They are a relatively recent development in...

  5. Part I. “To Exhibit Truth in an Attractive Form”:: An Establishment Press Arrives—1834–1850

    • 1. Ka Lama: “The Light” Is Brought to Hawai‘i
      (pp. 15-18)

      The first American Protestant missionaries to arrive in the Sandwich Islands, as Hawai‘i was known in 1820, brought a printing press from Boston on their 18,000-mile trip around Cape Horn. Hawai‘i’s first press was a manually operated Ramage flatbed that utilized hand-set type, much like the one on which James and Benjamin Franklin printed their newspaper in colonial Boston. As in the American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a print technology in Hawai‘i in the nineteenth century became a revolutionary force for change. And as Harold Innis has demonstrated inEmpire and Communications(1972), it is print that...

    • 2. The Solemn Responsibility of Dissent
      (pp. 19-22)

      After two Hawaiian language newspapers representing American Protestant missionaries’ beliefs appeared in 1834, an expanding mercantile community demanded a voice of its own. Although the small, independent country was an arena for large contending foreign powers—England, France, Russia, the United States—America by the 1830s had achieved a dominant position.

      American businessmen were as firmly convinced as their missionary brethren of the desirability of Hawai‘i having an Americanstyle government and a periodical press. They added to this another cause—the promotion of capitalist values and practices, like world trade from abroad and commerce at home. In 1836, within two...

    • 3. The Polynesian: In the Service of America and the Kingdom
      (pp. 23-28)

      ThePolynesian(1840–1841, 1844–1864), generally regarded as the most famous of the Islands’ papers in the nineteenth century, entered history as the enterprise of a young Bostonian, James Jackson Jarves. From June 1840 to December 1841, in its first series, it was supported by Jarves’ friends from the mission, as well as by advertisements and subscriptions from members of the business community. ThePolynesianthereby demonstrated the closing gap between religious and secular American interests.

      As was true for other commercial journalistic enterprises of the day, Jarves had a difficult time keeping the paper afloat financially, and he...

    • 4. The English Flag and the English Language
      (pp. 29-31)

      In the 1840s, the Reverend Richard Armstrong and his newspapers illustrate the press’ ability to focus public attention and shape public attitudes. Armstrong arrived from New England with the fifth company of missionaries in 1832. With a wife and ten children to support, he turned to various enterprises such as sugar cultivation. But Armstrong loved literacy and education best. He began the Atheneum, the forerunner of a public library, and in 1848 he withdrew from the mission to become the Kingdom’s first minister of Public Instruction. As a way to advance literacy and Christian-American morality, he also turned to another...

    • 5. God Gives Way to Mammon: The Mahele of 1848
      (pp. 32-38)

      In the ancient Hawaiian land tenure system, land was highly valued as the source of subsistence but held no monetary exchange value. No one “owned” the land. The Mahele of 1848 was the instrument that changed that by dividing the land among the king, the chiefs, and the people. (A further division separated land assigned to the king and his family from “crown” lands.) An act of 1850 extended the right to aliens to acquire fee simple land titles (Fuchs 1961; Kame‘eleihiwa 1992). All the newspapers, secular and religious, advanced this concept of Western property that forever—and for Native...

  6. Part II. “Fiery Polemic Contests” for the Public’s Support—1850–1887

    • 6. The Honolulu Times Welcomes the City of Honolulu
      (pp. 41-45)

      In midcentury, an American editor of an English language journal provided the sole newspaper opposition to the rising tide of American control of Hawai‘i. Americans had already risen to positions of power and influence in the government of Kamehameha III, and by 1850, both locally and abroad, there was speculation about the possibility of the United States annexing Hawai‘i.

      Newspapers like theSandwich Island GazetteandSandwich Island Mirrorhad expressed strong sentiments against the influence of the Protestant mission, but they themselves preached and practiced American dominance of the Islands. Proprietor Henry L. Sheldon of theHonolulu Times(1849–...

    • 7. The Chinese Arrive
      (pp. 46-47)

      All the newspapers in print in 1852—three commercial or government-sponsored journals in English, and four mission-sponsored in Hawaiian—uniformly favored recruiting labor from abroad for the sugar fields of Hawai‘i. The midcentury climate of heated debate did not extend to criticism of the law of June 21, 1850, “an Act for the Government of Masters and Servants.” Previously, thePolynesianhad approved the founding of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society by Caucasian planters (the body that would formulate immigration and labor policies until the end of the monarchy). The uniform opinion across establishment, opposition, and official newspaper lines was...

    • 8. A Prophet Without Profit: Fornander Topples Judd
      (pp. 48-52)

      By midcentury, journalism exerted another kind of influence when a newspaper brought down a government leader—the first instance of its kind in Hawai‘i. The outbreak of smallpox in 1853 was the catalyst for Abraham Fornander’s concentrated attack upon the government minister, Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd. Fornander had previously hurled verbal missiles at the physician, but he now launched a full frontal attack, accusing Judd of single-handedly making the epidemic worse by incompetence, negligence, and false dealings. Fornander’s four-page, tabloid-sizeWeekly Arguswas in print for less than two years, from January 1851 to September 1853, but it had a...

    • 9. The Advertiser Enters History
      (pp. 53-58)

      July 2, 1856, witnessed the birth of thePacific Commercial Advertiser, the journal that for a century and a half has been a forceful presence in reporting and shaping the news. Henry M. Whitney, the entrepreneurial son of members of the first company of New England missionaries, created the four-page weekly and accurately predicted that it was “destined … to exert more than an ephemeral influence on the industrial and social condition of our community and nation” (Adv., July 2, 1856).

      TheAdvertiser, as it has been called from that day to this, became a daily in 1882 and the...

    • 10. A Hawaiian Nationalist Press Is Born
      (pp. 59-62)

      The birth of a vernacular Hawaiian language press in 1861 received scant mention beyond Samuel Damon, editor of theFriend, commenting upon Hawaiians’ “attachment to newspapers” (Friend, Jan. 1, 1862). Yet it was a most significant event. In the early years, control of Hawaiian language publications rested with Protestant missionaries, their descendants, or the Hawaiian government. None spoke directly for Native Hawaiians. It was a remarkable achievement that within three short decades of acquiring literacy and a newspaper technology Native Hawaiians set up and controlled their own press.

      The origin of a Hawaiian nationalist press—for such it was from...

    • 11. “A New Era Has Dawned”: Sugar Is King
      (pp. 63-67)

      Even as a nationalist press advocating Hawaiian independence was gaining in numbers and readers, an opposite force was propelling Hawai‘i toward loss of its independence. The role of establishment papers as agents in gaining a consensus for public and private sector policies that would yoke Hawai‘i to America is clearly evident in the period that led up to a reciprocity treaty being signed between the two countries. Signed in 1875 and implemented in 1876, the treaty allowed for the mutual admittance of products duty free. It included rice and other commodities, but sugar was the primary product. Planters were now...

    • 12. The Politics of Health
      (pp. 68-72)

      In reporting the scourges that struck the Hawaiian people, newspapers chose sides according to whether they functioned as cultural imperialists or cultural relativists (Lim-Chong 1978). It should be no surprise that the American-dominated establishment press usually fell into the cultural imperialist camp. When they talked about diseases, they explained them as moral failings or as sins of the flesh. This view they especially applied to venereal diseases because the primary method of transmitting them was through sexual contact. Cultural relativists, by contrast, viewed disease as physical in origin and therefore treatable.

      Prior to the arrival of Captain James Cook and...

  7. Part III. Nationalists versus the Oligarchy:: An Uneven Battle—1887–1899

    • 13. A Pan-Pacific Dream
      (pp. 75-83)

      Previous to the reign of King Kalākaua, and regardless of their categories, if newspapers opposed a king or his policies, they were careful to confine their criticism to cabinet members, advisers, or legislators. They never attacked the king himself.

      From 1880 on, the concept of a Pan-Pacific confederacy formed the ideological background for projects undertaken during Kalākaua’s reign and became the focus of the establishment’s wrath. The English language editors, except for the king’s ally, Walter Murray Gibson, and two or three moderate newsmen, aimed their invective and ridicule at the government in general and Kalākaua personally. Their rhetoric, emboldened...

    • 14. Robert Wilcox, “the Napoleon of Printers’ Lane”
      (pp. 84-92)

      Caucasian political activists who were also journalists toppled the king from power through the Bayonet Constitution of 1887. Native Hawaiian political activists/newsmen also fought on two fronts, on the battlefield and on the printed page, to restore power to Native Hawaiians. Of these, Robert W. Wilcox was the most outstanding.

      Wilcox became an ignominious symbol of defeat in part because his causes lost, in part because of his own complicated personality and mixed motives. Histories of Hawai‘i have labeled him a “loser” and a “turncoat” and his followers “a raggle taggle of part-Hawaiians and a few down-at-heel foreigners” (Daws 1968)....

    • 15. Revolution and the Suppression of Freedom of Speech
      (pp. 93-104)

      The overthrow of the monarchy in 1893 to bring about the annexation of Hawai‘i by the United States was in essence an act of revolution. Journalists who were political activists chose up sides. Those who plotted the overthrow of the queen formed the Provisional Government and Republic of Hawai‘i until annexation could be secured. In effect, they led a combined establishment-official press, for they controlled the government and the economics of Hawai‘i. Those dedicated to preserving Hawai‘i as an independent country formed the opposition. It was they who led a Hawaiian nationalist press that challenged the annexationists.

      Population figures are...

    • 16. The Republic Burns Down Chinatown
      (pp. 105-110)

      Even as Hawai‘i was being absorbed by the United States, a plague and a fire struck the Islands. Technically, however, these twin disasters occurred on the eve of annexation. Hawai‘i was still an independent Republic in 1899, and it was this government that set fire to Chinatown.

      Rumors of plague flew through Honolulu for days. The Chinese language press in 1899 carried the first news of the plague, in a semiweekly published by Dr. K. F. Li and the Sun Chung Kwock Bo, but there is little additional information about this paper because the great Chinatown fire of 1900 consumed...

  8. Part IV. “Here to Stay”:: A U.S. Territory—1900–1941

    • 17. Annexation and the Pacific Cable
      (pp. 113-117)

      Two events at the turn of the century irretrievably yoked Hawai‘i to the United States. Annexation as the political act received the most attention. But the Pacific cable, a technological breakthrough, may have had as great an impact.

      The idea of annexation first appeared in 1849 in an upstate New York newspaper and locally in thePolynesian,then regularly reappeared in the press through the century until annexation was accomplished. In 1898, the news that had such import for Hawai‘i actually reached its shores a week after the fact. President William McKinley signed the joint resolution of Congress on July...

    • 18. The 1909 Strike and the Japanese Language Press
      (pp. 118-125)

      With annexation having formalized Hawai‘i’s position as an American outpost and cementing the oligarchy’s control, it would seem that labor-management conflicts in the new Territory inevitably would be decided in favor of all-powerful management. In a conflict in 1909, victory appeared to go to the planter oligarchy and its press. But it is a paradox of “Americanism” that it can be racist and colonialist, while harboring democratic ideals. Ultimately Yasutaro Soga, the newspaper leader of this first major strike in Hawai‘i, was to be the real winner of the struggle for basic human and economic rights. In the words of...

    • 19. Respected Residents Become the Enemy: World War I and the Germans
      (pp. 126-130)

      American patriotism escalated as the United States drifted toward war, reaching a fever pitch of anti-German hysteria during World War I in the pages of theAdvertiser, Star-Bulletin,andMaui News. TheGarden Islandon Kaua‘i cautioned moderation, but it was not read on O‘ahu, site of most of the anti-German sentiment. There were no German language papers in the Islands to defend their community. If there had been, they would likely have suffered the same fate, that of extinction (Kessler 1984). That the Islands’ papers reflected a national pattern does not lessen their culpability. They brought great harm to...

    • 20. Suppressing the News and Contributing to a Massacre
      (pp. 131-139)

      The establishment press’ treatment of Island Germans during World War I was sensational and ugly, but the papers provided the public with necessary information about the war. This press waged another battle in the period leading up to and during the strikes of 1920 and 1924. Imprinted on the banner of “Americanization” was anti-Bolshevik and anti-Japanese rhetoric, fed by twin fears. One fear of the Islands’ capitalists was that the Russian Revolution might foment Bolshevism and Socialism—thought to be one and the same—in the cane fields of Hawai‘i (Weinberg 1967). The second, tied to the first, was that...

    • 21. The Three Rs—Reading, ’Riting, and Racism
      (pp. 140-147)

      The relationship of schools to newspapers dates from the early nineteenth century when American missionaries transported both from the United States to the Hawaiian Islands and connected them at Lahaina Luna School on Maui. Despite this symbiotic relationship, the Islands’ papers have had a partial apathy toward education, neglecting it or failing to support its aims. Only a major issue will disturb this apathy (McKinney 1940). Race was the major issue in the 1920s when the Territory attempted to abolish the Japanese-language schools. A testimony to the power of newspapers,Hawaii Hochiand its great editor, Frederick Kinzaburo Makino, serving...

    • 22. “Reclaiming” Waikīkī for the “Aloha Spirit”
      (pp. 148-151)

      A newspaper may have introduced the phrase “aloha spirit” into everyday use to describe what is supposed to distinguish Hawai‘i from the rest of the world.Advertiserpublisher Lorrin P. Thurston personally wrote enthusiastic articles under gushing headlines that proclaimed the completion of the Royal Hawaiian Hotel: “If Sugar Is ‘King’ and Pineapple ‘Queen’ of Hawaii, Tourist Trade Is Surely the Hawaiian ‘Prince Royal,’” and “Hotel Opening Brilliant—Aloha Spirit Hovers Over Great Palace” (Adv.,Feb. 1, 2, 1927). The Royal Hawaiian in 1927 was the latest and most impressive edifice aimed at tourists.

      In 1837, Hawai‘i’s first English language...

    • 23. Getting Away With Murder: The Massie Case
      (pp. 152-158)

      Only four years after newspapers proclaimed the opening of the Royal Hawaiian Hotel as a testimony to the “aloha spirit,” a different kind of event in Waikīkī captured headlines and profoundly threatened that image. The news of what was to become the most famous crime case in Hawai‘i hit the Honolulu streets on a Monday morning in 1931: “Gang Assaults Young Wife Kidnapped in Automobile; Maltreated by Fiends” (Adv.,Sept. 14, 1931).

      From the moment the major dailies broke the story, it was a trial by newspapers and an index of race relations in Hawai‘i. TheMassiecase was a...

    • 24. Hilo’s “Bloody Monday”: The Tribune-Herald and the Voice of Labor
      (pp. 159-168)

      Murder, rape, visits from a president and a megastar—these did not for long distract people who could not meet the costs of living during the Great Depression. In Hilo, a long simmering labor-management dispute erupted on August 1, 1938, into what some have called “Bloody Monday,” others the “Hilo Massacre.” Two very different kinds of newspapers were there to record this, but more than that, to impact upon the way people felt about the episode from then to now. TheHilo Tribune-Herald,owned by theStar-Bulletin,spoke for management; theVoice of Labor,backed by the International Longshoremen’s and...

  9. Part V. “Passed for Publication”—1941–1945

    • 25. A Wartime Press and the Paradox of Censorship for Freedom
      (pp. 171-183)

      The attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7, 1941, at 7:55 a.m. lasted less than one hour but affected the papers’ relationship to the public as no other event in Hawaiian history has. The newspapers were indispensable as the primary source of public information during the four years of the war. They also confirmed the Territory as an integral part of the United States, a fact previously not always understood or acknowledged by the forty-eight states.

      At the center of their function in this critical period was a series of paradoxes. An inherent paradox is that war itself stimulates news...

    • 26. AJAs: American Patriots
      (pp. 184-190)

      Even before America’s entrance into World War II, war was continuously on the front pages of the Islands’ papers, from Japanese aggression in Asia to spreading European conflicts. The papers communicated public anxiety and apprehension that war would eventually engulf America. Nevertheless, the attack on Pearl Harbor was a profound shock that galvanized the Territory as no war fought thousands of miles away could have.

      The story of how Americans of Japanese ancestry, the AJAs, had to fight to join the military—one of the most powerful symbols of loyalty in the United States—and their subsequent courageous record in...

  10. Part VI. The March toward Statehood—the 1940s and 1950s

    • 27. “Dear Joe”: Lorrin Thurston Writes to Joe—Stalin or Farrington?
      (pp. 193-197)

      On May 4, 1949, a “letter” appeared in theAdvertiser,spread across four columns on the front page. Three days earlier, 2,000 stevedores had walked away from the piers, initiating a strike by the ILWU that would last 177 days and be among the most bitter in Hawai‘i’s history. The strike precipated the “Dear Joe” letters, almost fifty over a period of six months, that addressed a supposed ILWU/Communist takeover of Hawai‘i.

      The letters’ impact was both immediate and long lasting. AsAdvertisereditor Raymond Coll Sr. expressed it, “We felt the community needed to be aroused and the community...

    • 28. The Honolulu Record and the Art of Muckraking
      (pp. 198-203)

      The 1950s have the image of being the last era of quiet acceptance by a “silent generation” chiefly interested in living the good life and making money. Koji Ariyoshi and theHonolulu Record(1948–1958) belie that image. Ariyoshi (no relation to the later governor), a vocal critic of the establishment, was the epitome of the tenacious investigative reporter. His campaigns for justice stretched over ten years in his muckraking journal and achieved a high standard of journalism.

      The term “muckraking” comes from the man with a “muckrake” in John Bunyan’s seventeenth century novel,Pilgrim’s Progress,who always looks downward...

    • 29. The Hawaii Seven: Journalists in Jeopardy
      (pp. 204-211)

      The “Red scare” of the late 1940s, in which the mainstream dailies played a principal role, widened in the 1950s to enfold four opposition journalists. In 1951 and 1952, the fear that Communists would take over Hawai‘i was the alleged reason behind the headlined arrests and trial of the “Hawaii Seven” under the Smith Act (Holmes 1994). Making the connection to another trial that had consumed public interest, award-winning newsman Keyes Beech observed, “Not since the celebratedMassiecase twenty years ago has any trial commanded such wide interest in these islands” (Chicago Daily News,Sept. 2, 1952). A Honolulu...

    • 30. Ka Leo Reports on the Golden Rule
      (pp. 212-219)

      In the rabidly anti-Communist decade of the 1950s, a college paper,Ka Leo o Hawaii(1922–), the University of Hawai‘i student publication, rose above the low level of mainstream press discourse to distinguish itself.

      The university or college newspaper is different from other mainstream journals in that it is subsidized and only partly commercial (by selling advertisements). As a vehicle for student expression and a training ground for future professionals, it makes up a significant segment of the U.S. press (Hynds 1975; Atkins 1982). It is also an anomaly in that within itself it may contain all four newspaper...

    • 31. Watch Them Grow: Tourism and Suburban O‘ahu
      (pp. 220-229)

      There was another kind of fallout in the 1950s, a more benign one than that from nuclear bomb tests. The appearance in Hawai‘i of community newspapers was the fallout from the explosive growth of community papers on the mainland (the Suburban Press Foundation would be formed in 1960) (Sim 1969; Lister 1975). Occurring prior to statehood and coinciding with a rapid expansion of population and commerce on O‘ahu, community papers grew in the following decades to become important vehicles of communication and enormously profitable. The inceptions of theWaikiki Beach Press(1955–1993) and thePali Press(1958–1966) were...

    • 32. Statehood and the Star-Bulletin
      (pp. 230-238)

      The Islands’ newspaper history is marked by milestones since the advent of the first American-style newspapers of the 1830s to the present. Statehood, long sought over two centuries, was the milestone in 1959 that placed Hawai‘i on an equal footing with the rest of the states.

      “STATEHOOD!” shouted a banner headline above an enormous fifty-star flag in theHonolulu Star-Bulletinof March 12, 1959. The front page, wholly given over to the event, featured reports of special prayer services of thanksgiving and photos of smiling residents, “Now First Class Citizens.” A month later, the afternoon daily produced the largest issue...

  11. Part VII. The Turbulent 1960s

    • 33. The Business of Newspapers
      (pp. 241-250)

      Events of 1962 and 1963 vividly illustrate a basic function of the commercial or establishment press—to be profitable. The first, on June 1, 1962, was a joint operating agreement between theAdvertiserand theStar-Bulletinand the formation of the Hawaii News Agency (HNA). The second was a forty-six-day general strike in 1963, the first in the Islands’ newspaper history. The third, on March 18, 1963, was the formation of thePacific Business News(1963–), a “special interest” weekly devoted to business.

      A joint operating agreement (JOA) was not new in 1962. In fact, in the 1890s the...

    • 34. The Popular Columnist
      (pp. 251-255)

      The columnist is always one of the most popular features in any newspaper. Columns average about 750 words and appear in a fixed place at regular intervals (Weiner 1979). They are a mainstay in any newspaper and range from the staid and conventional in union and church newsletters to the extremist in political periodicals.

      Early columnists in the Islands specialized in religion, education, and shipping news. Today they vary widely in their subject matter, from sports, bridge, politics, horoscopes, child raising, and stamps to medical problems, gossip, art, fashion, and entertainment. Some columnists trade on being witty; others on what...

    • 35. Sports and Journalism: “The Social Fabric”
      (pp. 256-261)

      Revolution, war, strikes—newspapers have played a key role in reporting and participating in these events. But it is another kind of event that mesmerizes readers and accumulates the most column inches and headlines. Since the turn of the century, sports have garnered an estimated 10 to 20 percent of the total “news hole”—the space allotted to news and editorial content—on a typical weekday, and more on weekends (Hynds 1975).

      Sports contain the essence of news value: conflict and human interest, progress and consequence, and the twin spectacle of disaster and victory. And even though they involve losers...

    • 36. Above Ground: The Battle for Diamond Head
      (pp. 262-268)

      The name “Diamond Head” was prophetic. British sailors in the nineteenth century, who found crystalline rocks, or olivines, on its slopes and mistook them for diamonds, gave it a name that suggested the future value of that real estate.

      In 1967, Diamond Head was at the center of a conflict that found Honolulu’s major dailies on opposing sides. On one side was the ownership of theStar-Bulletin, the Islands’ largest newspaper, speaking for those who wished to build hotels and apartments on the Diamond Head shoreline. On the other was the second largest, theAdvertiser, speaking for those who opposed...

    • 37. Underground: The Battle for Hawai‘i’s Soul
      (pp. 269-281)

      Save Diamond Head was not just a grassroots movement but was backed by a major daily representing the economically and socially powerful. Dissent against developing the shoreline of that famous landmark was exercised within the perimeters of acceptable behavior. The movement was in essence reformist.

      During the same period, dissent by an underground press was initiated by relatively smaller numbers of university students and former students, campus activists, church and other support groups, as well as by members of the military. The term encompassing their dissent was simply called the Movement or the New Left, and was nationally in action...

    • 38. Women in the News: From Society to Social Causes
      (pp. 282-294)

      The role of women in newspapers in the 1960s was twofold and interlocking: as producers of the product and as subjects within its pages. When newspapers were still a major influence, women journalists, acutely aware of this double strain, altered the kinds of work they were engaged in and the images they projected. They were a part of the larger struggle against social and sexual pigeonholing. In the 1960s, women moved from producing and appearing in the society pages, to getting rid of those pages, and to taking primary positions on major topics of the decade: the Vietnam War and...

  12. Part VIII. From Satellite City Halls to a Satellite Universe—1970–1976

    • 39. Memories of Maui
      (pp. 297-309)

      Until the 1960s, theMaui News(1900–) was either the only general circulation newspaper on that island or completely overshadowed smaller ones like the Japanese-EnglishMaui Record(1916–1941) and theValley Isle Chronicle(1922–1950). Before regular air service, the Honolulu dailies arrived by boat only twice weekly. As a single continuous entity, theMaui Newsis second in age only to theHonolulu Advertiser. Today, it has an islandwide circulation of about 17,000 weekdays and 10,175 Sundays, and a Friday edition is mailed to mainland subscribers.

      Up into the 1960s, Maui was overwhelmingly agricultural, sugar and pineapple...

    • 40. Corporate Economics and Chain Papers
      (pp. 310-316)

      What does it mean for a hometown newspaper to be bought out by a chain, or in today’s parlance, a newspaper group? When newspapers no longer have their primary ties to their communities, who records the daily births and deaths and the myriad activities of our lives between those two events? Does this mean that they—and we—stand to lose our collective memory?

      The 1970s have been called the period of the “Newspaper Acquisition Binge” (Business Week, Feb. 21, 1977). In 98 percent of U.S. cities, a handful of corporations assumed control of the daily news business, the nation’s...

    • 41. Fighting the Newspapers to a Draw: Frank Fasi and the Dailies
      (pp. 317-325)

      Frank F. Fasi’s battles with the two major Honolulu dailies are the exception to the old adage, never get into an argument with a newspaper unless you own it. But they also bear out the truth of another adage: even bad publicity can be good. From the front page to the editorial section, from Living or Today to the business pages, the man who has been the longest serving mayor of the City and County of Honolulu—from 1968 to 1994, except for one four-year term (which he lost to Eileen Anderson)—has been the subject of an enormous number...

    • 42. The Public Opinion Poll
      (pp. 326-331)

      Polling is a canvassing of a statistical sample of persons to analyze public opinion on a particular question. Many people view polls as detrimental to political life and are convinced that they influence others; at the same time they disclaim any influence upon themselves. Politicians scoff at them publicly but obsessively commission and consult them in private. Candidates frequently blame a poll for their defeat if they have been shown to be behind in the campaign, but they seldom credit a poll for their victory if they have been shown to be ahead. Regardless of one’s opinion of polling, however,...

    • 43. Anger and Wit: The Political Cartoon
      (pp. 332-337)

      For the readers, inundated with more information than they can absorb, the editorial or political cartoon interprets and makes sense of things (Press 1981). It impacts doubly, for it combines an instantly recognizable figure or image with a sharply worded message. It is the most popular feature of the editorial page.

      Political cartooning, related to the ancient art form of caricature, surfaced in American colonial newspapers soon after the papers themselves appeared. Prompted by the outbreak of the French and Indian Wars that colonialists viewed as endangering them, Ben Franklin’sPennsylvania Gazettein 1754 featured a snake divided into segments,...

    • 44. Hawaiian Sovereignty and a Satellite Universe, 1976
      (pp. 338-346)

      If we could go back to the future, to 1834 and the birth of the Islands’ first newspaper, we could witness at first hand young Hawaiian men at Lahaina Luna School eagerly scanning the contents of the printed pages they have produced. This historical event at once points forward and backward. Looking forward, we see the introduction of a new technology that will come to dominate communications for almost 150 years. Looking backward, we recognize the stubborn persistence of ethnicity and the past on our lives, as in the Hawaiian language newspapers that will document and preserve the customs, genealogies,...

  13. Bibliography
    (pp. 347-372)
  14. Index
    (pp. 373-386)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 387-387)