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Memoir of a Trustbuster

Memoir of a Trustbuster: A Lifelong Adventure with Japan

Eleanor M. Hadley
with Patricia Hagan Kuwayama
Patricia Hagan Kuwayama
Hugh T. Patrick
Copyright Date: 2003
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  • Book Info
    Memoir of a Trustbuster
    Book Description:

    Eleanor Hadley was a woman ahead of her time. While working on a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard, she was recruited by the U.S. government for her knowledge of Japanese zaibatsu (business combines) and subsequently became one of MacArthur's key advisors during the Occupation. After completing her doctorate, she prepared for a career in Washington until she learned she was being blacklisted. Seventeen years passed before Hadley's name was cleared; she returned to government service in 1967 and began a distinguished career as a senior policy analyst with the U.S. Tariff Commission and the General Accounting Office. Widely known (and feared) by Japanese businessmen and government leaders as "the trust-busting beauty," Hadley published Antitrust in Japan, a seminal work on the impact of postwar deconcentration measures, in 1970. She received the Order of the Sacred Treasure from the Japanese government in 1986. Hadley's personal story provides a colorful backdrop to her substantive discussions of early postwar policies, which were created to provide Japan with a more efficient and competitive economy. As someone closely involved in formulating U.S. economic policy toward Japan for nearly half a century, Eleanor Hadley brings a unique perspective--as well as a down-to-earth sense of humor--to the continuing challenge of communicating across the Pacific.

    eISBN: 978-0-8248-6357-9
    Subjects: Political Science, Law

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    E. M. H.
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 1-16)
    Patricia Hagan Kuwayama and Hugh T. Patrick

    How was it that a young American woman, who graduated from college in 1938 with a degree in politics, economics, and philosophy and only a modest knowledge of Japan, came to be an economic policymaker centrally involved in establishing Japanese antitrust policy and in breaking up its giant, family-owned business combines(zaibatsu)during the Allied Occupation of Japan, and then went on to become an eminent specialist on the Japanese economy? What propelled her to earn a Ph.D. in economics from Radcliffe (since Harvard then did not award Ph.D’s in economics to women)? Why did this nice, diligent, high-performing liberal...

  5. Chapter One Prewar Experiences: Japan and Trips to China
    (pp. 17-41)

    I grew up in Seattle the daughter of Margaret (Floyd) and Homer M. Hadley. My mother thought it was important for a daughter to go away to college, as her own mother had believed in her own case. Mother was a graduate of the University of Washington, class of 1911, with a major in physics and math, although botany became her true love. This she pursued on her own, acquiring prodigious book learning and applying it to great effect in the garden that she created around the home above Lake Washington in which my brother and I grew up. Mother...

  6. Chapter Two Radcliffe College and Washington, D.C.
    (pp. 42-55)

    Being somewhat at loose ends upon my return from Japan in the spring of 1940, I ended up attending the University of Washington in Seattle for the academic year 1940–1941. There I took courses in economics and in the Far East Institute, and found the Japanese-language instruction a great improvement over that I had known in Tokyo.

    Finally pulling myself together, I decided to embark on a Ph.D. program in economics. It was not that economics was my favorite subject; but I assumed that I needed to build on my undergraduate work, which had been a degree in politics,...

  7. Chapter Three The Occupation
    (pp. 56-98)

    The Occupation of Japan was an extraordinary attempt at social engineering. After four bitter years of war, the United States and its allies sought to make certain that armed conflict would not repeat itself further down the road. Toward this end they attempted to remake Japan into a democratic country in the belief that democracies are not aggressive. (This belief obviously ignored the history of nineteenth-century imperialism.)

    The effort was nothing less than an attempt to change the character of a nation. And it was a nation about which we actually knew very little. The “bible” in Washington for understanding...

  8. Chapter Four Deconcentration Continues
    (pp. 99-120)

    The deconcentration program was an economic program to change corporate structures, with the aim of reducing the overwhelming power of the combines. But, because family and personal ties were such a critical part of thezaibatsucombines’ structure, it was recognized that a successful deconcentration also required a purge—that is, a program to remove key personnel who had been involved in constructing and running these organizations and who might be in a position to reconstruct them if left in place. In other words, a change of personnel was necessary if there were to be combine dissolution and not merely...

  9. Chapter Five The United States the 1950s and Beyond
    (pp. 121-148)

    My next few years were black ones. On returning from the Occupation in September 1947 I went back to Harvard University Cambridge, where I finished the Ph.D. in June 1949. I had three job offers: a teaching position in the Economics Department at Mount Holyoke College, a staff position at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, and an offer at the newly created Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) work with my former immediate boss from the SCAP Headquarters, Rod Hussey. Rod Hussey was liberal in his political thinking. He Wrote on April 29, 1949:

    It has occurred to me...

  10. Chapter Six Reflections
    (pp. 149-158)

    I retired from government service and returned to Seattle in 1984. My mother was then ninety-five and still managing a large house, an apartment on the grounds, and an extensive garden. Another pair of hands seemed a good thing. I did not realize how difficult an adjustment it would be for me. In three “incarnations”—wartime, early postwar, and then from 1967 to 1984—I had lived in D.C., twenty-seven years in all, and on the East Coast of the United States for forty years. Virtually all my friends were on the East Coast. But of course one adjusts; and,...

  11. Notes
    (pp. 159-166)
  12. Bibliography
    (pp. 167-170)
  13. Index
    (pp. 171-175)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 176-176)