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Globalization and Higher Education

Globalization and Higher Education

Jaishree K. Odin
Peter T. Manicas
Copyright Date: 2004
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  • Book Info
    Globalization and Higher Education
    Book Description:

    Post-secondary education is a massive globalizing industry with a potential for growth that cannot be overestimated. By 2010 there will be 100 million people in the world, all fully qualified to proceed from secondary to tertiary education, but there will be no room left on any campus. A distinguished panel of scholars and educational administrators from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and the Pacific was asked to speak on the complexities of globalized higher education from their positions of concern and expertise and then engage in a dialogue. The result is this timely and important work. Globalization and Higher Education aims to energize readers into rethinking higher education. It succeeds by dealing thoughtfully and provocatively with pertinent issues that cut across and transcend national boundaries as well as very different points of view.

    eISBN: 978-0-8248-6266-4
    Subjects: Education, Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-x)
    Deane Neubauer

    At its founding in 2002, the Globalization Research Center (GRC) at the University of Hawai‘i defined its mission as identifying the dynamics of globalization and analyzing its impacts. One vehicle toward doing so was the convening of various “dialogic” conferences organized around globalization and its many problematics. The conference that forms the basis for this volume focuses on higher education as one of these.

    The “Globalization and Higher Education” conference was preceded by an initial conference oriented around the emerging discourses of public institutions in the policy space previously and familiarly occupied by market institutions and the state. Much like...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Jaishree K. Odin and Peter T. Manicas
  5. Introduction
    (pp. xiii-xx)
    Peter T. Manicas and Jaishree K. Odin

    The present volume had its genesis in a conference entitled “Globalization and Higher Education,” held in Honolulu in February 2002 and sponsored by the Globalization Research Center at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. There were a number of novelties to this conference that bear on the contents of the volume. We think that these novelties make this a very different and important book. Of course, readers will determine how different and how important.

    First, there was a very deliberate effort to bring together for three intense days people who could offer very different perspectives on the nest of problems...

  6. Part I. The Larger Context

    • Introduction
      (pp. 3-6)

      Peter Wagner begins this volume with a sensitive and wide-ranging look at globalization. He notes that “there are conjoined economic, cultural, and political processes that we may describe as ‘globalization,’ and they do have an impact on research and higher education, the two core functions of the universities.” But he sees many reasons why we should not jump to conclusions about the future of the institutions of higher education. Globalization is a multidimensional process—and not, for example, merely a process of “marketization.” Second, not only are there countertendencies in all these processes, but also it is an error to...

    • CHAPTER 1 Higher Education in an Era of Globalization: What Is at Stake?
      (pp. 7-23)
      Peter Wagner

      The termglobalizationhas become a short-hand for the condition of our time. Since the closing decade of the twentieth century, it suggests, some worldwide processes have begun to shape each and every walk of our lives. Almost invariably, this new condition is discussed with some skepticism. Few people wholeheartedly embrace globalization—understandably so, since the term refers to rapid change with not quite foreseeable consequences. Most writers about globalization, though, also see it as inevitable, as something that we cannot escape or would not want to reject, because it also brings considerable advantages.

      If globalization is such an encompassing...

    • CHAPTER 2 The Withering of the Professoriate: Corporate Universities and the Internet
      (pp. 24-41)
      Michael Margolis

      For most of the twentieth century, communities of scholars thought the American academy provided some refuge from the vicissitudes of the market economy. Scholars at universities and liberal arts colleges typically immersed themselves in study and in teaching. They occasionally turned out a scholarly article, book, or review, but a small minority produced the bulk of these publications. For most, the primary mission of a university remained “the diffusion and extension of knowledge rather than the advancement” (Newman, 1996). Rhetorically, scholars in the liberal arts and sciences generally embraced the idea that their institutions valued education for its own sake,...

    • CHAPTER 3 The Neo-Liberal Paradigm and Higher Education: A Critique
      (pp. 42-62)
      Jan Currie

      The concept of globalization is contradictory and contested. However, it is generally agreed that the world’s economy is integrated in a way that is different from that of the past. One of the differences is that there are no longer any substantial economic systems competing with capitalism. Proponents of neo-liberal globalization believe that through competition and market forces a more perfect world will develop. At the same time, critics of neo-liberal globalization believe that global economic forces tend to segment and divide societies and the world into different types of players: those who initiate globalization, those who are affected by...

  7. Part II. A Closer Look

    • Introduction
      (pp. 65-68)

      Our attention so far has been focused on the macro level of analysis, the nature of globalization and its consequences for higher education. In this section, our authors look more closely at the microprocesses and at some details.

      All too typically, people think of globalization in terms of marketization—extending market “logic” across the globe, including, therefore, the increasing marketization of many institutions, including higher education. Charles Smith’s essay is a frontal assault on the generally uncritical views of markets. He argues that both friends and foes of markets misconceive them, with disastrous consequences for our understanding. Instead, then, of...

    • CHAPTER 4 Globalization, Higher Education, and Markets
      (pp. 69-81)
      Charles W. Smith

      Globalization is understood by most people to entail an everincreasing dominance of markets and market ideology worldwide. In the case of higher education, this dominance is formulated in numerous ways, including the commodification of education, greater reliance upon corporate management styles, greater sensitivity to “customer” interests, and “bottom-line” decision making. Those favoring this process see it as leading to not only more rational resource allocation and cost savings, but also greater responsiveness to the educational needs of both students and the society at large. They further see it as a welcome attack upon entrenched educational hierarchies, including faculty governance prerogatives....

    • CHAPTER 5 Lessons from the For-Profit Side
      (pp. 82-103)
      Richard S. Ruch

      The beat poet Allen Ginsberg visited my campus in the fall of 1969, when I was an undergraduate English major at a large state university in the Midwest. He spoke in a kind of prose-poem about the purpose of American universities, characterizing them as giant warehouses designed to occupy the time of young people that society did not know what else to do with. A proper college education, he suggested, was simply a way of efficiently housing people who were too young to be adults and too old to be children. Most of the assembled students, myself included, identified strongly...

    • CHAPTER 6 Globalization, College Participation, and Socioeconomic Mobility
      (pp. 104-124)
      Scott L. Thomas

      The emergence of a truly globalized economy has had far-reaching consequences for labor and training in the United States. Among the more visible impacts of this new economy are expanding participation in postsecondary education and a corresponding growth in the number of colleges and universities offering baccalaureate degrees. While this expansion of opportunity and participation is generally viewed as a positive and desirable development, a closer look at the qualitative nature of today’s postsecondary opportunities reveals a highly stratified landscape that serves to filter the rewards typically associated with college attendance. This chapter explores this recent growth in participation and...

  8. Part III. Implications for Pedagogy

    • Introduction
      (pp. 127-130)

      All of the writers in this volume raise questions of pedagogy and curriculum: what is teaching and learning, and what is to be taught. But in this part, these questions are addressed directly. John McDermott does not deny that globalization is a force, or that the new technologies will demand a serious rethinking of both pedagogic and curricular matters. But ultimately, for him, the question of pedagogy comes down to the relation between the teacher and the student. He acknowledges uses for the new technologies, but does not see them as being capable of replacing the face-to-face encounter of student...

    • CHAPTER 7 The Erosion of Face-to-Face Pedagogy: A Jeremiad
      (pp. 131-139)
      John J. McDermott

      The jeremiad is rooted in wisdom literature and has many variations. Nominally, in this chapter I use that which has come to us courtesy of the prophet Jeremiah—neither a full lamentation nor a Cassandra-like prophecy of doom, but rather a “dew-line,” an early warning system, or the ever-present and ever-dangerous “tipping phenomenon.”

      In modern times, the jeremiad is an American cultural staple, first appearing in the election sermon of Samuel Danforth in 1670. Two recent major jeremiads have to do with the subject at hand, high technology, electronic technology, or more directly, with the potential loss of our sense...

    • CHAPTER 8 The Used Car Dealership and the Church: On Resolving the Identity of the University
      (pp. 140-146)
      Charles Karelis

      The economist Gordon Winston memorably and mischievously called the modern university a cross between a used car dealership and a church. This caricatures on both sides, but it suggests an important question: can the value of consumer sovereignty coexist with more purely “educational” values in the modern university? More ambitiously, can the two be resolved into a consistent identity or agenda? Or is it the fate of the modern university to be pulled in opposite directions, with progress toward one pole undoing progress toward the other?

      In practice, the goal of giving the customer what the customer wants at a...

    • CHAPTER 9 New Technologies and the Reconstitution of the University
      (pp. 147-162)
      Jaishree K. Odin

      It can hardly be doubted that higher education is being reconstituted at many different levels. The way this reconstitution unfolds is intricately linked to the extent universities are cognizant of the potential of new technologies to radically transform the production and transmission of knowledge, along with teaching-learning practices. Trying to adapt to the new reality without changing the university’s outdated structures is not going to take universities very far as far as their survival and effectiveness as teaching institutions are concerned. In order to change the culture of higher education, which is characterized today by student apathy and faculty frustration,...

  9. Part IV. Some Regional Responses to Globalization

    • Introduction
      (pp. 165-166)

      The focus of the following three essays is the consequences of globalization as regards higher education in some parts of the less developed world. We wish, of course, that we could have included authors from Africa, the states of the former Soviet Union, and the Middle East. We are sure that there would be further important differences that would have been most interesting to pursue.

      What is most striking about the three authors in this part of the book is the huge differences among them, both in perspective and in their analyses. This begins with differences in how they understand...

    • CHAPTER 10 Interaction of Global Politics and Higher Education
      (pp. 167-180)
      Su Hao

      The new wave of globalization, having emerged in the latter decades of the last century, impinges upon us now with an even stronger force. Globalization influences directly both international and domestic politics. It is obvious that the 9/11 tragedy in the United States, as a negative effect of globalization, has made world politics more complicated. Politics, both domestic and international, has become real global politics, further complicating the interrelated hierarchical structure of local politics, national politics, and international politics. In this context, it is necessary for politicians and other elites to become “globalized personnel,” traveling overseas frequently, and, if they...

    • CHAPTER 11 Knowledge and Higher Education in Latin America: Incommodious Commodities?
      (pp. 181-201)
      Leonardo Garnier

      It was only recently that the tide against investing in public higher education in less developed countries started subsiding. As stated in the report of the Task Force on Higher Education and Society convened by the World Bank and UNESCO, aptly subtitled “Peril and Promise,” it is increasingly recognized that, in the context of today’s global economy, systematic knowledge has gradually replaced experience in furthering technology, with sophisticated and theoretical knowledge now the predominant path for technical progress. Therefore, the quality of knowledge generated within higher education institutions, and its availability to the wider economy, is becoming increasingly critical to...

    • CHAPTER 12 Corporate, Technological, Epistemic, and Democratic Challenges: Mapping the Political Economy of University Futures
      (pp. 202-218)
      Sohail Inayatullah

      Changing student expectations (access to global systems of knowledge, including transparency and international accreditation), the Internet (virtual education; moving from campus-centered to personcentered, and far more customized, individually tailored education), global corporatization (reduced state funding for universities and the development of a market culture on campuses), and transformed content (multicultural education) are current trends that will dramatically influence all the world’s universities. Indeed, the potential for dramatic transformation is so great that in the next fifteen to twenty years, it is far from certain that universities as currently constituted—campus-based, state-funded, and local student-oriented—will exist. Certainly, the current model...

  10. Part V. The Future of Higher Education

    • Introduction
      (pp. 221-222)

      The two essays that conclude our volume offer comprehensive and thoughtful overviews of our present situation, globally, nationally, and locally, and each makes arguments regarding possible futures for higher education in a globalizing world. But as we have noted before, the understanding of globalization powerfully influences how they see the various pieces fitting together.

      Tom Abeles is surely the most enthusiastic of the contributors to this volume regarding the role of the new technologies in what he sees as the emergence of “a transformed university that has been struggling to become visible for over a half century.” He begins with...

    • CHAPTER 13 The Changing Craft Nature of Higher Education: A Story of the Self-Reorganizing University
      (pp. 223-240)
      Tom P. Abeles

      Ever since the first scholars sat on the steps of the libraries in Alexandria selling their services as guides to the knowledge locked in the stacks, education has been a craft “business,” often subsidized by the scholars themselves in order to pursue higher learning. Even the Greek schools had to operate on a cash flow model; each scholar had to market his unique skills to the larger public.

      In just this manner, individuals and schools developed their own reputations for both the content and the quality of the work that they provided for their students and followers. As time progressed,...

    • CHAPTER 14 Does the University Have a Future?
      (pp. 241-254)
      Gerard Delanty

      The debate about the university today is very different from some of the major debates on the university over the past century and a half. The grandiose and programmatic visions of the modern university in the seminal works of Cardinal John Henry Newman, Karl Jaspers, Talcott Parsons, Jürgen Habermas, Alvin Gouldner, and Pierre Bourdieu reflected the self-confidence of the university as an institution with a moral and cultural mission. Today the debate has shifted to a defensive stance on the one side and on the other to a largely negative view of the university as an anachronistic institution clinging to...

  11. Selected Bibliography
    (pp. 255-258)
  12. List of Contributors
    (pp. 259-260)
  13. Index
    (pp. 261-267)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 268-268)