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The Collected Essays of Milton Babbitt

The Collected Essays of Milton Babbitt

Stephen Peles
with Stephen Dembski
Andrew Mead
Joseph N. Straus
Copyright Date: 2003
Pages: 504
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  • Book Info
    The Collected Essays of Milton Babbitt
    Book Description:

    Like his compositions, Milton Babbitt's writings about music have exerted an extraordinary influence on postwar music and thinking about music. In essays and public addresses spanning fifty years, Babbitt has grappled profoundly with central questions in the composition and apprehension of music. These writings range from personal memoirs and critical reviews to closely reasoned metatheoretical speculations and technical exegesis. In the history of music theory, there has been only a small handful of figures who have produced work of comparable stature. Taken as a whole, Babbitt's writings are not only an invaluable testimony to his thinking--a priceless primary source for the intellectual and cultural history of the second half of the twentieth century--but also a remarkable achievement in their own right.

    Prior to this collection, Babbitt's writings were scattered through a wide variety of journals, books, and magazines--many hard to find and some unavailable--and often contained typographical errors and editorial corruptions of various kinds. This volume of almost fifty pieces gathers, corrects, and annotates virtually everything of significance that Babbitt has written. The result is complete, authoritative, and fully accessible--the definitive source of Babbitt's influential ideas.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-4122-6
    Subjects: Music

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-viii)
    (pp. ix-xiv)
  5. The String Quartets of Bartók (1949)
    (pp. 1-9)

    The recent performance of the String Quartets of Béla Bartók by the Juilliard String Quartet served, by virtue of the stylistic unity of the presentation and the fortuity of nonchronological programming, to emphasize above all the homogeneity and consistent single-mindedness of Bartók’s achievement in his works for this medium.¹ The superficially striking idiomatic differences between the first two quartets and the later four appeared entirely secondary to the basic unity of purpose that invested all six with the character of a single, self-contained creative act. For all that these works span an entire creative career, there is, throughout, a single...

  6. Review of Schoenberg et son école and Qu’est ce que la musique de douze sons? (1950)
    (pp. 10-15)
    René Leibowitz

    The two volumes under discussion represent serious effort in the neglected field of analytical criticism. It is doubly unfortunate, therefore, that their criticism must be adjudged meaningless, their analysis inadequate. The failure is not so much that of the author; rather, it is the inevitable result of musical criticism’s refusal to learn and to use the strictness of method and the verbal consistency which alone make criticism possible. M. Leibowitz, as composer, critic, and conductor, is intimately aware of the problems of the music which he examines here. The weaknesses of his present volumes, therefore, are never the familiar ones....

  7. Review of Polyphonie—Revue musicale trimestrielle; Quatrième cahier: Le Système dodécaphonique 1950
    (pp. 16-21)

    The article of primary interest in this issue ofPolyphonie,¹devoted to the twelve-tone system, is Arnold Schoenberg’s “La Composition à douze sons.”² This is Schoenberg’s only extended statement on the twelve-tone system, and though it was delivered as a lecture in 1939, it had not been generally available until this translation by René Leibowitz appeared;³ since then, it has appeared in its English version in a collection of Schoenberg’s essays issued under the title,Style and Idea.⁴ It is to be assumed that this article will serve henceforth as a source material in the history of twelve-tone music and of...

  8. Review of Felix Salzer, Structural Hearing: Tonal Coherence in Music 1952
    (pp. 22-30)

    Any discussion of Dr. Salzer’s book must begin with a consideration of two matters: the nature of Heinrich Schenker’s contributions to analytical theory, which furnish the admitted foundation for the present volume, and Dr. Salzer’s particular formulation and presentation of certain aspects of these contributions.

    The work of Schenker has suffered, from its beginnings, the dual and not unrelated fates of being more discussed (usually uninformedly) than read, and of being the object of a kind of conspiracy of silence. Never translated, and not easily accessible even in the original German, the work has been judged indirectly through its presentations...

  9. Tintinnabulation of the Crochets (1953)
    (pp. 31-33)

    Béla Bartók died, in 1945, an eminent composer but not, in the general sense of the word, a popular one. That combination of fortuities which transforms eminence into fame apparently awaited, in the case of Bartók, the final fortuity of death. This should not have been the least expected irony in the career of a composer who, in life, was spared few of the phases of the contemporary composer’s inferno.

    Bartók suffered the frustrations of inadequate instruction, complaining, as a student, of the composition teacher who “spoke only in generalities” and informed him that “an adagio must be about love.”¹...

  10. Musical America’s Several Generations (1954)
    (pp. 34-37)

    The second group of releases in Columbia’s Modern American Music series forcibly reminds us that only in the recording realm is the American composer—denied as he is official sponsorship and patronage—not at a crucial disadvantage in the international musical arena.¹ In Europe musical nationalism—the taking care of one’s own and letting posterity take care of the others—is sensibly understood to be a practical means to the end of securing contemporary recognition. Certainly, such recognition does not insure permanence, but it increases the possibility of permanence. If one of the sources of our musical strength is our...

  11. Some Aspects of Twelve-Tone Composition (1955)
    (pp. 38-47)

    To disdain an alliance with those journalist critics, official composers, and custodians of musical patronage who regard the mere presence of “twelve tones” as sufficient evidence of a fall from musical grace, or, on the other hand, with that smaller group—created, perhaps, by understandable reaction—which regards the same phenomenon as a necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of profound musical virtues, is to deny oneself the possibility of making any convenient summary of American twelve-tone music. For American twelve-tone composers, in word and musical deed, display a diversity of “idioms,” “styles,” compositional attitudes, and accomplishments that almost...

  12. The Composer as Specialist (1958)
    (pp. 48-54)

    This article might have been entitled “The Composer as Specialist” or, alternatively, and perhaps less contentiously, “The Composer as Anachronism.” For I am concerned with stating an attitude towards the indisputable facts of the status and condition of the composer of what we will, for the moment, designate as “serious,” “advanced,” contemporary music. This composer expends an enormous amount of time and energy— and, usually, considerable money—on the creation of a commodity which has little, no, or negative commodity value. He is, in essence, a “vanity” composer. The general public is largely unaware of and uninterested in his music....

  13. Twelve-Tone Invariants as Compositional Determinants (1960)
    (pp. 55-69)

    At the present moment, when many of the jagged edges of abruption have been smoothed by time and practice, there are those who—presumably in the spirit of mediation and moderation—would minimize not so much Schoenberg’s achievement as a composer as the degree to which the twelve-tone system is genuinely “revolutionary” in its nature and implications, the degree to which it imposes new demands of perception and conception upon the composer and listener, and—therefore—the degree to which it admits of further and extensive exploration and discovery.

    Such an attitude does a disservice not only to Schoenberg, but...

  14. The Revolution in Sound: Electronic Music (1960)
    (pp. 70-77)

    There exists today a music which is produced entirely without performers and musical instruments. Indeed it cannot be produced by performers on musical instruments, and can be presented to the listener only through the medium of a loudspeaker. This should be a matter of little surprise to anyone who has ever thoughtfully placed a phonograph needle in a record groove. For, contained in the varying side to side undulations of these grooves is all of the “sound” that eventually reaches the listeners’ ears as the complex musical phenomenon of, let us say, a seventy-five piece symphony orchestra. Therefore, it follows—...

  15. Past and Present Concepts of the Nature and Limits of Music (1961)
    (pp. 78-85)

    In as much as the termconceptat present is taken to designate “properties, relations and similar entities ... expressed in language by a designator of nonsentential form,”¹ and necessarily to involve “an analysis of the nature of a referent,”² the term itself can serve most appropriately as the point of entry for a discussion in which I shall be concerned chiefly with contemporary aspects of the question at issue. For the essential elements of the above characterizations, involving the correlations of the syntactic and semantic domains, the notion of analysis, and—perhaps most significantly—the requirements of linguistic formulation...

  16. Set Structure as a Compositional Determinant 1961
    (pp. 86-108)

    I propose, in this article, further to explain and expand certain observations made in a previous article,1 and to extend the investigation of the principles of set formation,2 and transformation, which was begun in another article.3 In this latter paper I was concerned primarily with those set properties pitch-class and intervallic, order-preserving and merely combinational and those relationships between and among forms of the set which are preserved under the operations of the system, and which in general are independent of the singular structure of a specific set. Here, to the end of discovering certain compositional consequences of set structure,...

  17. Twelve-Tone Rhythmic Structure and the Electronic Medium 1962
    (pp. 109-140)

    To proceed from an assertion of what music has been to an assertion of what music, therefore, must be, is to commit a familiar fallacy; to proceed from an assertion of the properties of the electronic medium to an assertion of what music produced by this medium therefore must be, is not only to commit the same fallacy (and thus do fallacies make strange bedfellows), but to misconstrue that compositional revolution of which the electronic medium has been the enabling instrument. For this revolution has effected, summarily and almost completely, a transfer of the limits of musical composition from the...

  18. Reply to George Perle 1963
    (pp. 141-146)

    Since I shall not presume here to “defend” the Schoenberg Violin Concerto against George Perle’s charges of “failure” and the possession of “fatal flaws,” and shall be concerned with asserting my own virtue only to the extent of attempting to demonstrate that I did not commit the specific, if interesting, sins of which I have been accused, this will be not the extended discussion that may appear warranted but a rather brief note, for all that certain of the issues raised by Perle are, in their implications, important and intricate.

    There are at least three ways in which I did...

  19. Remarks on the Recent Stravinsky 1964
    (pp. 147-171)

    Never before the year of Igor Stravinsky’s eightieth birthday had I been privileged to speak publicly or to write about the music of Stravinsky. That I was then invited to do so, and that I accepted this invitation happily and proudly might have been construed by some simply as evidence that invitations to birthday celebrations are tendered in a spirit of generosity and forgiveness, but must certainly have been interpreted by some less credulous others as a further evidence of a sinister realignment of allegiances, which has attended and reflected certain aspects of Stravinsky’s compositional activity during the past decade....

  20. The Synthesis, Perception, and Specification of Musical Time 1964
    (pp. 172-177)

    The various notational means of signifying and conveying the composer’s decisions and specifications to the various media for the electronic production of musical sound are probably temporary both in their exact nature and variety. But this should not be construed as a basis for concluding that these notational practices are, therefore, of consequence only to the historian of the ephemeral, or to the operators and designers of such media. The characteristics of these notations and, indeed, the very fact of their probable ephemerality embody implications of far more than mere “historical” interest, implications which extend significantly beyond the nature of...

  21. An Introduction to the R.C.A. Synthesizer 1964
    (pp. 178-190)

    The R.C.A. Electronic Music Synthesizer, which we at the Columbia- Princeton Electronic Music Center,1 in the desire to forestall “aesthetic” controversy, have rechristened unofficially “The R.C.A. Electronic Sound Synthesizer,” is a greatly enlarged, modified, and refined (and thus dubbed “Mark II” version of the “Mark I” Synthesizer, the first R.C.A. Synthesizer, which has received considerable attention in the literature, and is widely regarded now most mistakenly as “the” synthesizer.2 The Mark II provides for the production of, and the measurable and regulable control of, these components of the musical event: frequency, envelope, spectrum, intensity, duration, and of the mode of...

  22. The Structure and Function of Musical Theory 1965
    (pp. 191-201)

    I like to believe that a not insignificant consequence of the proper understanding of a proper theory of music is to assure that a composer who asserts something such as “I don’t compose by system, but by ear” thereby convicts himself of, at least, anargumentum ad populumby equating ignorance with freedom,¹ that is, by equating ignorance of the constraints under which he creates with freedom from constraints. In other words, musical theory must provide not only the examination of the structure of musical systems—familiar and unfamiliar by informal conditioning—as a connected theory derived from statements of...

  23. The Use of Computers in Musicological Research 1965
    (pp. 202-212)

    I presume to speak on the subject of “Computers in Musicological Research” by virtue of two unassailable qualifications: I am not a computer expert, and I am not a musicologist. These, of course, are my qualifications to be presumptuous, not my qualifications to speak. Rather, I should like to think that one of the reasons why I was invited to speak on this subject corresponds to one of the primary reasons that led me to accept: as a confessed Synthesizer expert, and as a convicted composer, I have for so long been exposed and no doubt shall continue to be...

  24. Edgard Varèse: A Few Observations of His Music 1966
    (pp. 213-221)

    This is, to the best of my knowledge, only the second occasion on which I have been granted the somewhat unnerving privilege of speaking publicly of a composer’s music in that composer’s presence. On the first such occasion, the composer was Igor Stravinsky, being done homage in his eightieth birthyear; now, on this second occasion, the composer is Edgard Varèse, in his eightieth birthyear;¹ and it was of Varèse that Stravinsky has predicted, “His music will endure, we know this now because it has dated in the right way.”² Although I have no direct knowledge of Stravinsky’s survival theory of...

  25. Three Essays on Schoenberg 1968
    (pp. 222-236)

    Schoenberg’s only violin concerto, completed in 1936, dedicated to Anton Webern and unperformed until 1940—when it was presented by Louis Krasner with The Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski—has since that time become one of the most widely studied, taught, and analyzed source works of twelve-tone composition by the creator of twelve-tone composition, while it has entered the repertory of few violinists and few orchestras; performances, particularly in the United States, have been rare to a degree sadly unbefitting one of the most influential compositions of our time. Certainly, it is a difficult work. For the violinist, it is...

  26. On Relata I 1970
    (pp. 237-258)

    I have had a number of occasions in the past—and the present article is but another such occasion—to contemplate the hazardous temptations besetting the composer seeking words to assist the understanding of his music. Therefore, it is less the lack of the customary professional immodesty that initially inhibits my discussion of my own music than the awareness that, when presented with such an opportunity, the composer is likely to point with pride to the singularities of his accomplishments, to the most immediate manifestations of his originality, to those of his music’s properties which he deems historically unprecedented and...

  27. Contribution to “The Composer in Academia: Reflections on a Theme of Stravinsky” 1970
    (pp. 259-262)

    One of the apparent, if secondary, advantages of the academic composer is his ability to identify and—therefore—dismiss anargumentum ad verecundiam.¹ And neither Stravinsky’s authority as a composer, Craft’s as an interlocutor, nor appeals to the methodological authority of a lexicographer who dares oppose the “theoretical” to the “practical,” dares invoke the term “rules” with equivocal evocations of the normatively “conventional,” possibly can be construed as providing authority for statements about the American university, or the American composer in the American university. The further counsel that certain colleges are perhaps excessively seductive for the composer, or that the...

  28. In Memoriam: Mátyás Seiber 1970
    (pp. 263-263)

    If my introduction—just before World War II—to the name and music of Mátyás Seiber, through hisEasy Dances,was to an only slightly representative Seiber, my introduction to the man was to the completely representative Seiber. For at the 1952 ISCM Festival at Salzburg he was, at once, the complete composer—moving with grace and appetite through the international society of composers, the complete colleague— quiet hero and mentor of the young composer while honoured intimate of the older, and ever the husband and father, for Lilla and Julia also were at Salzburg.¹

    Two years later, in London,...

  29. Contribution to “Stravinsky (1882–1971): A Composer’s Memorial” 1971
    (pp. 264-269)

    Although twenty points for the opposition to nine points for the shared position was the final score of that “nice parlor game” inDialogues and a Diarywhen time ran out,1 it was surely not the end of the Stravinskyian quest of the Schoenbergian Rosebud, for where—in that reckoning—is what conceivably could be construed as that final and decisive revelation with which the search could have concluded, that search to which so many of us can attest?

    In the summer of 1962, the Santa Fe Opera celebrated the birthday of Igor Stravinsky in words and music: Stravinsky’s music...

  30. Contemporary Music Composition and Music Theory as Contemporary Intellectual History 1972
    (pp. 270-307)

    It would be as unrealistic of me to disregard privately as it is probably indiscreet and superfluous of me to observe publicly that I, of all the contributors to this series, am to the best of my knowledge the lone composer, and although my presence here is perhaps best excused as an instance of my moonlighting as a theorist it is in my primary role of composer that I am obliged to inhabit that world, or more aptly, that approximately disjunct collection of communities, which, if I may judge from the absence of distinguishably scholarly faces and ears from those...

  31. In Memoriam: Stefan Wolpe 1972
    (pp. 308-309)

    Stefan has left us—his music. And so I join you in a refusal to mourn the mortality of the man when there is so much to celebrate in the immortalities of his music.

    For the composer, there is no puzzle in “the relation of music to life,” for music is of life, of his life, and Stefan’s music was, and is, passionately and singularly his life, for each individual work replicated his sense of life, his sense of a musical composition’s life, the form of a total life in process, in progress, ever-evolving, ever-developing, ever-mutating, yet ever reflecting the...

  32. Since Schoenberg 1974
    (pp. 310-334)

    In this, the centenary year of the birth of Arnold Schoenberg, and to the same day the semicentenary year of the first performance of his Wind Quintet, Op. 26, and therefore, in a reasonably celebrative sense of the public birth of that still-bouncing Bubi, twelve-tone composition, I wish to begin this article of faith and homage by taking a measure of Schoenberg, or more accurately a measure and one-third, that passage in Op. 23, No. 3, which begins with the last beat of measure 18 and continues to the end of the following measure:

    Surely it can be understood as...

  33. Celebrative Speech 1976
    (pp. 335-340)

    In this, the centenary year of the birth of Arnold Schoenberg, and to the same day, this day the semicentenary year of the first performance of his Wind Quintet, and therefore, in a reasonably celebrative sense of the public birth of that still-bouncing Bubi, twelve-tone composition, we might permit ourselves to be diverted by and to matters of history: of Schoenberg’s history, which spanned, traversed, penetrated, and shaped that varied and various succession of musical and historical episodes, eras, and epochs; of Schoenberg’s uses of history; of Schoenberg’s historiography (that proud identification of his place in the history of music...

  34. Responses: A First Approximation 1976
    (pp. 341-366)

    Stravinsky is reported to have remarked, on the occasion of the first American performance of his Piano Concerto: “I always love best the one I have done last, the one I am at work on at the moment. It is the only one that exists for me. I think it is the best because I am putting into it everything I feel. If I could write it better I would. Later, however, I do not always feel it is the work of a genius.”¹ Although I am content to leave observations on genius to geniuses like Stravinsky, surely there are...

  35. Introduction to Marion Bauer’s Twentieth Century Music 1978
    (pp. 367-370)

    ThatTwentieth Century Musicwas published in 1933, the year in which Schoenberg—as ever, in the principled vanguard—arrived to remain in this country, suggests something more than the merely chronological, coincidentally historical position and intrinsic interest of a book which, modestly and innocently, changed the course of some of our young lives, and prepared many more of us for that cataclysmic transfer of much that was and was to be the world of truly contemporary musical creation from Europe to the United States. But, in spite of the chillingly prescient quotation of Dr. Goebbels and the characteristically (for...

  36. Foreword to David Epstein, Beyond Orpheus 1979
    (pp. 371-376)

    It is not mere fashionability, for that is by now largely a past fashionability, which suggests that the “normal” and “revolutionary” oscillatory historical paradigm is particularly suitable to situate chronologically and characterize ideologically the fragmented, pluralistic, disarrayed, thus revolutionary, condition of musical creation over the past seven or so decades. This is a period so long—and with no normalcy in sight—that one might be tempted to tamper with the paradigm and declare such an extended reign of coexistent, though almost discrete, revolutionary musics as, finally, the normal music. I do not mean for this lighthearted equivocation to be...

  37. Memorial for Ben Weber (1916–1979) 1979
    (pp. 377-379)

    When—on May 10, 1979—Ben Weber died, apparently quietly and calmly, alone in his apartment, death imitated life, the life that Ben had sought for himself from the time, in the midforties, when he arrived in New York from the Midwest. It was to secure such hermetic serenity, that his choice of sources of income to support his composing habit reduced to two professions: restauranteur or music copyist. The notion of owning his own, tiny, by appointment only, restaurant tempted him, for his choice of the components of a salad was as lapidary as his selection of the elements...

  38. Memorial for Robert Miller (1930–1981) 1981
    (pp. 380-382)

    When Bob asked me to speak on this occasion he implored me to proclaim the crucial importance of music to him, of what music meant to him. But surely that must be as apparent as what he has meant to music, for the acts of personal courage and professional principle, not just for the cruel last half-a-dozen years, but for the full term of his quarter of a century of professional musical life, could be those only of a man and musician who derived the strength for that courage, the power for those principles from his belief in music, his...

  39. The More than the Sounds of Music 1984
    (pp. 383-387)

    It is written by the stars of journalism and in the words of the prophets of cultural history that music is entering a new era or reentering an old one (by the back door or trap door?), and this birth or rebirth has been celebrated by appropriately Dionysian dancing on the tombs of those musics liquidated and interred for the mortal sins and aesthetic transgressions of intellection, academicism, and—even—mathematicization.

    When, not so long ago, I was invited to deliver the keynote (or prime set) address of the Society for Music Theory, I took the occasion to express my...

  40. I Remember Roger (Contribution to “In Memoriam: Roger Sessions”) 1985
    (pp. 388-394)

    The first time I saw Roger, in the late summertime of 1935, he opened the door of his dark attic room above the three or four floors of the Granberry (?) Piano School or Studios (with which Roger had no other professional association) on East 61st Street in New York City to greet me, an apprehensive would-be Sessions student with what I hoped would be the qualifying creations under my arm. As I followed the bald, heavily mustached, intimidating Roger on the constricted path between his old grand piano and a Moor-Bechstein double keyboard piano he was minding for a...

  41. “All the Things They Are”: Comments on Kern 1985
    (pp. 395-398)

    The attributes of care and craft which Jerome Kern’s fellow songwriters could only have been impressed by are surely those which sensitive laymen can only be affected by. Like Richard Rodgers, George Gershwin, Harold Arlen, and Stephen Sondheim—all of whom, along with Victor Herbert, expressed their admiration for his work—Kern wrote only for the Broadway and London stages and Hollywood films; like them, he was not a composer of isolated popular songs. (“The Last Time I Saw Paris” is singular in every respect, including the reversal of Kern’s normal order of creation of words and music.) But, unlike...

  42. Hans Keller: A Memoir 1986
    (pp. 399-403)

    I suspect that I am rather relieved that the pressures of time and circumstances do not permit me to deal in depth or detail with the writings of Hans Keller, not only because of their quantity and range, but primarily because of their infinite variety of manner, as well as matter. So great, indeed, is that variety that one who did not know Hans personally is likely to wonder which of the many faces, the many minds, the many words are those of therealHans Keller, while those of us who knew him well are likely to wonder which...

  43. Stravinsky’s Verticals and Schoenberg’s Diagonals: A Twist of Fate 1987
    (pp. 404-427)

    When a prime mover and shaper of this conference induced the specific title and general content of this paper by reminding me of an almost forgotten remark, years ago dropped in class, as to the remarkable relation between Schoenberg’s diagonals (as I viewed them) and Stravinsky’s verticals (as he viewed them) by a rotation which transforms—symmetrically—one into the other, he did so but a few days before I was asked to speak on what soon became “Order, Symmetry, and Centricity in Late Stravinsky,” delivered at the International Stravinsky Symposium held at the University of California, San Diego. Although...

  44. On Having Been and Still Being an American Composer 1989
    (pp. 428-436)

    If composers of a certain age, who began to come of age during the dark age of the nineteen-thirties, are less disinclined to think of themselves as American composers, except as a matter of birth or citizenship, than they were half a century ago, at that time-point even innocent invocations of nationalism carried frightening intimations of the violent irrationalities which threatened to destroy the musical world and—even—the unmusical world. While we could understand the feelings of resentment and frustration of the generation of composers just preceding ours, induced by the range of professional indignities to which they were...

  45. A Life of Learning 1991
    (pp. 437-458)

    Iam grateful and flattered to have had my talk this evening included under the ongoing rubric of “A Life of Learning,” but in all accuracy and necessary realism I must be permitted the protective subrubric of “A Composer of a Certain Age,” for how might a composer justify his presence before learned representatives of learned bodies, when the very term “learned” has appeared and disappeared in the history of music only in the most apologetic and fugitive of roles, in such expressions as “learned writing” or more specifically “learned counterpoint,” usually with the intimation of the anachronistic, the factitious, and...

  46. Brave New Worlds 1994
    (pp. 459-465)

    Even W.V.Quine, whose gentle observation that, “the less a [field] is advanced, the more its terminology rests on an uncritical assumption of mutual understanding,” could not have foreseen a terminological tolerance which would permit the term “classical,” as in “classical music,” to accommodate the proclamation of the President of the United States that “jazz is America’s classical music.” ¹ So, rather than expose myself to the suspicion of harboring unpatriotic, even seditious thoughts, or to be obliged to conjecture as to the future of jazz (which has its own problems), I presume to substitute a term at least roughly coextensive...

  47. “My Vienna Triangle at Washington Square,” Revisited and Dilated 1999
    (pp. 466-488)

    I have chosen to appropriate, with suitable augmentation, the title of a talk I gave at Washington Square College, New York University, in a series of lectures honoring Professor Martin Bernstein,¹ not because the shared content of that talk and this essay is that extensive but because I need to inform—even warn—the reader and to remind myself that this is a personal, necessarily fragmentary, documentation of a perilous journey that began at Washington Square in early February 1934 and is distinguished, at least by its chronological coextension, with that era during which, first mainly in New York but...

  48. INDEX
    (pp. 489-517)