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Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48)

Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48)

Michael Doebeli
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    Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48)
    Book Description:

    Understanding the mechanisms driving biological diversity remains a central problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Traditional explanations assume that differences in selection pressures lead to different adaptations in geographically separated locations. This book takes a different approach and explores adaptive diversification--diversification rooted in ecological interactions and frequency-dependent selection. In any ecosystem, birth and death rates of individuals are affected by interactions with other individuals. What is an advantageous phenotype therefore depends on the phenotype of other individuals, and it may often be best to be ecologically different from the majority phenotype. Such rare-type advantage is a hallmark of frequency-dependent selection and opens the scope for processes of diversification that require ecological contact rather than geographical isolation.

    Michael Doebeli investigates adaptive diversification using the mathematical framework of adaptive dynamics. Evolutionary branching is a paradigmatic feature of adaptive dynamics that serves as a basic metaphor for adaptive diversification, and Doebeli explores the scope of evolutionary branching in many different ecological scenarios, including models of coevolution, cooperation, and cultural evolution. He also uses alternative modeling approaches. Stochastic, individual-based models are particularly useful for studying adaptive speciation in sexual populations, and partial differential equation models confirm the pervasiveness of adaptive diversification.

    Showing that frequency-dependent interactions are an important driver of biological diversity,Adaptive Diversificationprovides a comprehensive theoretical treatment of adaptive diversification.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-3893-6
    Subjects: Biological Sciences, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Table of Contents

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  1. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-8)

    Evolution occurs when organisms reproduce so that their offspring inherit certain characteristics, or traits. Variation in heritable traits, together with variation in reproductive success, generates evolutionary change in trait distributions. If the correlation between heritable variation and reproductive variation is (close to) zero, evolutionary change is neutral, and the trait distribution performs an evolutionary random walk. In contrast, evolution is adaptive if the correlation between heritable variation and reproductive variation is significantly different from zero.

    Adaptive evolution is generally thought to be of central importance for the history of life on earth. The process of adaptation, whereby types that are...

  2. CHAPTER TWO Evolutionary Branching in a Classical Model for Sympatric Speciation
    (pp. 9-37)

    In 1966 John Maynard Smith published an article in which he countered the argument, made most forcibly by Ernst Mayr, that there is no mechanism for sympatric speciation consistent with the known facts of evolution. A mischievous John once told me during a workshop in the Swiss Alps how part of the motivation for writing this article was to “get on Mayr’s nerves.” Nevertheless, his model turned out to be the starting point for much subsequent work analyzing the conditions for speciation in the Levene type niche models (Levene, 1953) that were the basis for the Maynard Smith model. Much...

  3. CHAPTER THREE Adaptive Diversification Due to Resource Competition in Asexual Models
    (pp. 38-73)

    The idea that competition for limiting resources can drive the evolution of diversity was already present in Darwin’s work. The following quotes illustrate Darwin’s contention that natural selection can favor rare types that are sufficiently different from common types, and that such selection for being different could eventually lead to the formation of new species:

    Consequently, I cannot doubt that in the course of many thousands of generations, the most distinct varieties of any one species [...] would always have the best chance of succeeding and increasing in numbers, and thus in supplanting the less distinct varieties; and varieties, when...

  4. CHAPTER FOUR Adaptive Diversification Due to Resource Competition in Sexual Models
    (pp. 74-112)

    The previous chapter explained that adaptive diversification due to resource competition is a general and robust phenomenon in models for long-term evolution in clonally reproducing populations. Once such populations have converged to an evolutionary branching point, nothing hinders their splitting into diverging phenotypic clusters. Evolution in sexual populations should in general be qualitatively similar to clonal evolution during directional phases of adaptive dynamics, such as convergence to a singular point. Whether sexual or clonal, as long as selection gradients are nonzero, populations will move in the direction dictated by the selection gradient. However, as sexual populations converge to what would...

  5. CHAPTER FIVE Adaptive Diversification Due to Predator-Prey Interactions
    (pp. 113-138)

    Up to now we have mainly considered adaptive diversification in consumer species undergoing evolutionary branching due to competition for resources. (I say “mainly” because in the classical Levene models discussed in Chapter 2, the mechanisms leading to frequency-dependent adaptation to different habitats could in principle involve various types of ecological interactions.) It has of course long been recognized that consumption, that is, predation, can not only exert strong selection pressure on the consumer, but also on the consumed species. However, predation has traditionally received much less attention than competition as a cause for the origin and maintenance of diversity (Vamosi,...

  6. CHAPTER SIX Adaptive Diversification Due to Cooperative Interactions
    (pp. 139-162)

    If predation has received less attention than competition as a cause for the origin and maintenance of diversity, mutualistic interactions have fared even worse. There is quite a substantial theoretical literature on the ecology of mutualistic interactions (e.g., Boucher, 1985; Bronstein et al., 2003; Jones et al., 2009; Vandermeer & Boucher, 1978; Wolin & Lawlor, 1984), but only a few studies have investigated mutualism as a potential driver of diversification (e.g., Doebeli & Dieckmann, 2000; Ferrière et al., 2002). There is of course a rather huge literature on the evolution of intraspecific cooperation, and many of these models implicitly address the problem of...

  7. CHAPTER SEVEN More Examples: Adaptive Diversification in Dispersal Rates, the Evolution of Anisogamy, and the Evolution of Trophic Preference
    (pp. 163-194)

    In the previous chapters, I have explained how the three fundamental types of ecological interactions—competition, predation, and mutualism—can drive adaptive diversification. To further illustrate the diversifying force of frequency-dependent interactions, I discuss three more examples that all arise in the context of fundamental ecological and evolutionary questions. The first example concerns the dynamics of spatially structured populations and serves as an excellent case study for illustrating the feedback between ecological and evolutionary dynamics. The second example concerns the evolution of asymmetry in gamete size between the sexes, which sets the stage for the “paradox of sex” (Maynard Smith,...

  8. CHAPTER EIGHT Cultural Evolution: Adaptive Diversification in Language and Religion
    (pp. 195-216)

    Evolution can occur whenever there are units of reproduction that produce other such units that inherit some characteristics of the parent units. If the units of reproduction vary in their reproductive output, there will be evolutionary change. “Intellectual content” can satisfy these simple requirements. An idea or a theory can be viewed as a unit living in the brain of an individual human (or animal). It can mutate within that brain, and it can be passed on to the brains of other individuals, thereby reproducing itself (typically with modification). For a multitude of potential reasons, some ideas and theories are...

  9. CHAPTER NINE Adaptive Diversification and Speciation as Pattern Formation in Partial Differential Equation Models
    (pp. 217-261)

    The previous chapters have discussed adaptive diversification mostly based on the theory of adaptive dynamics on the one hand, and on individual-based models on the other hand. Adaptive dynamics models offer the possibility of mathematical tractability, but they are based on the assumption of essential monomorphy of resident populations. Individual-based models do not assume monomorphic populations, but they appear to be too complicated for mathematical analysis. In this chapter, we will consider a class of models that we have already encountered in Chapter 8, and that lie somewhere in between these two approaches. Partial differential equations (pde’s) can describe the...

  10. CHAPTER TEN Experimental Evolution of Adaptive Diversification in Microbes
    (pp. 262-278)

    This is a book about the theory of adaptive diversification, but I want to close with a chapter describing some laboratory experiments with which we attempted to test parts of this theory. In general, conclusively describing the process of adaptive diversification in empirical studies is difficult, because this process typically unfolds over at least hundreds of generations, which for organisms of human scale implies nonhuman time scales. However, experimental evolution with microbes has emerged as a very attractive alternative to overcome the problem of long time scales in empirical studies of evolution. This is exemplified by the famous long-term evolution...

  11. APPENDIX: Basic Concepts in Adaptive Dynamics
    (pp. 279-305)