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Structural Biomaterials

Structural Biomaterials: Third Edition

Copyright Date: 2012
Edition: STU - Student edition
Pages: 312
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  • Book Info
    Structural Biomaterials
    Book Description:

    This is a thoroughly revised, updated, and expanded edition of a classic illustrated introduction to the structural materials in natural organisms and what we can learn from them to improve man-made technology--from nanotechnology to textiles to architecture. Julian Vincent's book has long been recognized as a standard work on the engineering design of biomaterials and is used by undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and professionals studying biology, zoology, engineering, and biologically inspired design. This third edition incorporates new developments in the field, the most important of which have been at the molecular level. All of the illustrations have been redrawn, the references have been updated, and a new chapter on biomimetic design has been added.

    Vincent emphasizes the mechanical properties of structural biomaterials, their contribution to the lives of organisms, and how these materials differ from man-made ones. He shows how the properties of biomaterials are derived from their chemistry and interactions, and how to measure them. Starting with proteins and polysaccharides, he shows how skin and hair function, how materials self-assemble, and how ceramics such as bone and mother-of-pearl can be so stiff and tough, despite being made in water in benign ambient conditions. Finally, he combines these topics with an analysis of how the design of biomaterials can be adapted in technology, and presents a series of guidelines for designers.

    An accessible illustrated introduction with minimal technical jargonSuitable for undergraduates and more advanced readersIntegrates chemistry, mechanics, and biologyIncludes descriptions of all biological materialsSimple exposition of mechanical analysis of materials

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-4278-0
    Subjects: Biological Sciences, Chemistry

Table of Contents

  1. CHAPTER ONE Basic Elasticity and Viscoelasticity
    (pp. 1-28)

    In the physically stressful environment there are three ways in which a material can respond to external forces. It can add the load directly onto the forces that hold the constituent atoms or molecules together, as occurs in simple crystalline (including polymeric crystalline) and ceramic materials—such materials are typically very rigid; or it can feed the energy into large changes in shape (the main mechanism in noncrystalline polymers) and flow away from the force to deform either semipermanently (as with viscoelastic materials) or permanently (as with plastic materials).

    The first class of materials is exemplified among biological materials by...

  2. CHAPTER TWO Proteins
    (pp. 29-60)

    Proteins are polymers of amino acids; polysaccharides are polymers of sugars. Between them, these two groups of substances make up nearly all the skeletal tissues, pliant and stiff, of animals and plants. The precise complement of amino acids or sugars and the order in which they arranged along the polymer chain ultimately control the mechanical properties of the material that they form. These chemicals and the materials they form are the subject of this and the next three chapters. Proteins and polysaccharides of mechanical significance can be divided into two main groups—fibrous and space-illing. In general, proteins are more...

  3. CHAPTER THREE Sugars and Fillers
    (pp. 61-83)

    At the outset it should be realized that, relatively speaking, less is known about the polysaccharides than about the proteins. This is largely a chemical problem—amino acids have much more convenient handles for chemical processing and identification, which also makes them more powerful chemically. They are also more intimately associated with the genetic code, which has persuaded biochemists and biologists that protein structure is more important and basic. It is also much easier to deduce the sequence of a protein from the chemistry of the gene. Ironically, it is the sheer chemical anonymity, combined with extreme abundance, of polysaccharides...

  4. CHAPTER FOUR Soggy Skeletons and Shock Absorbers
    (pp. 84-115)

    This chapter is mostly about fibers and water. Proteins and polysaccharides are the major classes of structural polymers in biological materials. The number of materials that contain just protein or just polysaccharide is very small. By far the greatest number of biological materials contain both protein and polysaccharide, more or less hydrated and intimately associated. The protein, the polysaccharide, and the water can then be spoken of as phases. In materials science (the main topic of this text) the matrix is the material in which the fibers sit. In biology the termmatrixis also used to denote any extracellular...

  5. CHAPTER FIVE Stiff Materials from Polymers
    (pp. 116-142)

    All the materials considered in chapter 4 are more or less pliant, consisting of a relatively small proportion of stiff fibers in a pliant matrix. Under such circumstances the fibers introduce anisotropy (as in sea anemone mesoglea and locust extensible intersegmental membrane) and can resist loads due to internal pressures (cartilage, plant cells) or carry loads along their length (tendons). Fibers are excellent in tension but become unstable and collapse when compressed longitudinally—hence, the impossibility of the Indian Rope Trick. Fibrous structures can be prestrained, for instance, by a turgor mechanism in herbaceous plants or cartilage whereby the compressive...

  6. CHAPTER SIX Biological Ceramics
    (pp. 143-177)

    The trouble with using protein to make a skeleton is that it is metabolically expensive. Insect skeletons are made of protein because it is relatively light, and with chitin as the fiber, they are also stiff and tough. Moreover, the mechanical properties of cuticle are very closely tailored to its use by variations in the properties of the protein matrix, so that insect cuticle is adapted to many forms, from hard mandibles to elastic and extensible membranes. Protein is thus eminently suitable for the skeleton of an animal that owes a large part of its success to its capacity for...

  7. CHAPTER SEVEN Implementing Ideas Gleaned from Biology
    (pp. 178-204)

    A brief outline of the history of biomimetics has been attempted elsewhere (Vincent 2008; Vincent et al. 2006), but nowhere has it been mentioned that the numerous lures and disguises used by hunters of stag and salmon (among the eligible quarries) and scarecrows on farms should also be considered! These examples take biomimetics back thousands of years. Currently, the medical profession is bidding to transform medical biomechanics into biomimetics. This is a credible goal in the general area of prostheses (Wolfe 1961) and some replacement tissues such as scaffolds for colonization by the body’s cells (Kanungo and Gibson 2009, 2010)...