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Intermediaries in International Conflict

Intermediaries in International Conflict

Thomas Princen
Copyright Date: 1992
Pages: 280
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztfrb
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  • Book Info
    Intermediaries in International Conflict
    Book Description:

    Few scholars have attempted to evaluate critically the role mediators play in managing international conflicts. Thomas Princen examines where mediation fits in the larger realm of diplomatic practice, going beyond the usual state-centric focus to account for the mediating activities of a wide range of actors-from superpowers to small states, from international organizations to nongovernmental groups.

    Originally published in 1995.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6278-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. PREFACE
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
  5. Part One: The Nature of Intermediary Intervention

    • Chapter One INTRODUCTION: INTERMEDIARIES IN INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT
      (pp. 3-17)

      In the closing decade of the twentieth century, East-West tensions may have eased but international conflict and violence are far from over. Regional conflicts and other so-called minor disputes will continue to attract the attention of major and minor powers alike. Many of these conflicts arise from clashes among newly formed states as in much of the Third World or from religious and ethnic tensions as in the Middle East, the southern Soviet Union, and Sri Lanka. And as in Poland, the Philippines, and Argentina, much of the conflict arises less from external threat than from a struggle for domestic...

    • Chapter Two THIRD PARTIES: PRINCIPALS AND NEUTRALS
      (pp. 18-31)

      Third-party intervention—especially mediation—has received little attention in the study of international politics.¹ Modern theories of international relations, especially of security relations, evolved out of the Cold War period following World War II. The dominant paradigm has been deterrence with related theories of containment and tacit bargaining. These theories have emerged in response to East-West tensions, especially the relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. In the context of superpower relations, their orientation has been bilateral; third parties are largely irrelevant. No European power, not Japan or China, can dictate terms to the superpowers on arms control,...

    • Chapter Three THE BASES OF INTERMEDIARY INFLUENCE: RECONFIGURATION, PROPOSAL MAKING, AND INFORMATION POOLING
      (pp. 32-45)

      Popular accounts of third-party intervention, whether news accounts or the prescriptive mediation literature, often emphasize the variety of tasks intermediaries use to facilitate settlement. They describe the shuttling between parties, the search for the right formula, and the endless drafting of settlement packages. Although technique is certainly important, in this chapter I argue that an intermediary’s impact on a dispute is fundamentally a consequence of three attributes of intermediary intervention: the ability to change bargaining dynamics by reconfiguring the structure of the bargain; the ability to precipitate movement through making proposals; and the ability to pool information.

      In chapter 2,...

    • Chapter Four THE INTERMEDIARY’S DECISION PROBLEMS: ENTRY AND EXIT
      (pp. 46-59)

      In this chapter, I step into the shoes of the intermediary to ask, What does it mean to be in the middle? What is difficult about performing the intermediary’s task? What is perplexing? What are the demands disputants and others place on intermediaries? How do these demands conflict? My intention is not to generate a laundry list of what intermediaries can or should do. How-to-do-it works are ample, and detailed descriptive accounts are beginning to emerge in some areas of mediation.¹ Rather, here I portray the intermediary’s task as a set of dilemmas or key decision problems. Doing so assumes...

    • Chapter Five THE DISPUTANTS’ DECISION PROBLEMS: ACCEPTANCE, INITIATION, ROLE BARGAINING
      (pp. 60-66)

      A complete picture of an intermediary’s major decision problems must account for the disputants’ major decision problems, at least those relating to the intervention. In this chapter, then, I examine intermediary intervention from the disputants’ perspective. This is not to adopt the prevailing prescriptive approach to negotiation in which the focus is on disputants and the tensions experienced by intermediaries are ignored. Rather, the purpose of this chapter is to illuminate further the intermediary’s tensions and to do so in terms of the disputants’ consideration of a third party. Three disputant decision problems are relevant: initial acceptance of a third...

  6. Part Two: Intermediary Intervention in Practice:: Principal Mediators

    • Chapter Six CAMP DAVID: JIMMY CARTER MEDIATES BETWEEN ISRAEL AND EGYPT, 1977–1979
      (pp. 69-106)

      On March 26, 1979, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat met in Washington, D.C., to sign a peace treaty between their two countries. U.S. President Jimmy Carter presided over the signing just as he did much of the negotiating that led up to it. For more than two years, roughly half of his single term of office, Carter committed his personal resources and that of his administration to finding peace in the Middle East. His mediation of a settlement was heralded worldwide as a tremendous achievement, settling many outstanding issues and bringing peace to two arch...

    • Chapter Seven PORTSMOUTH: THEODORE ROOSEVELT MEDIATES BETWEEN RUSSIA AND JAPAN, 1904–1905
      (pp. 107-130)

      By the turn of the century, Japan was nearing the status of a full-fledged power in a system of competing empires. It had discarded the shogunate, opened itself to the Western world, and defeated China to take control of Korea. Russia, meanwhile, had acquired new territory in the Pacific and in China. Expanding from opposite directions into mainland Asia, conflict between the two imperial powers thus seemed inevitable. When diplomatic negotiations failed to settle their competing claims, Japan attacked Russian forces at Port Arthur on the Chinese mainland in February 1904. Initially, Japan had limited war aims and sought an...

  7. Part Three: Intermediary Intervention in Practice:: Neutral Mediators

    • Chapter Eight VATICAN: POPE JOHN PAUL II MEDIATES BETWEEN ARGENTINA AND CHILE, 1978–1984
      (pp. 133-185)

      Some disputes—especially minor ones like many territorial disputes—seem to simmer for years, even decades, with little action and little reason to settle them. They can linger harmlessly or, owing to a shift in the balance of power or to domestic turmoil, they can become pretexts for belligerence. When a belligerent path is chosen, a direct solution is often difficult to achieve, and third parties are useful in promoting a settlement. In a century-long dispute over a few islands at the tip of South America, Argentina and Chile narrowly averted war by turning to a mediator, the Vatican. The...

    • Chapter Nine BIAFRA: THE OAU, THE BRITISH, AND THE QUAKERS MEDIATE IN THE NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR, 1967–1970
      (pp. 186-213)

      For most people, the Nigerian Civil War of 1967–1970¹ conjures up images of mass starvation and attempted genocide. For others, it was a not unexpected consequence of decolonization in an ethnically diverse country blessed with oil. Either way, the conflict between the Nigerian federal government and the secessionist eastern region of Biafra was extremely costly in lives and material resources. It was never strictly a domestic affair, however. From the earliest signs of civil strife until the federal government’s victory, the international community was actively involved, especially in its humanitarian efforts. Some of the third parties—especially, the OAU,...

    • Chapter Ten CONCLUSION
      (pp. 214-226)

      Understanding an intermediary’s practice requires an understanding of the inherent contradictions in the intermediary’s role: the need to stay removed from the parties’ positions on issues yet, at some point, make proposals that challenge those positions; the need to act as a purveyor of process but also to act to change the parties’ perceived alternatives; the need to set appropriate expectations and in so doing risk challenging vital interests; the need to foster cooperation and yet to resort to contentious acts to urge movement. In short, an intermediary must walk a thin line between being a neutral catalyst and a...

  8. NOTES
    (pp. 227-252)
  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 253-260)
  10. INDEX
    (pp. 261-263)