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Human Resources in Japanese Industrial Development

Human Resources in Japanese Industrial Development

Solomon B. Levine
Hisashi Kawada
Copyright Date: 1980
Pages: 346
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  • Book Info
    Human Resources in Japanese Industrial Development
    Book Description:

    By focusing on the educational and skill training institutions Japan has developed to generate human resources for modern industry, this book represents a new contribution to the historical analysis of Japan's modern economic growth. The authors concentrate on those large-scale industries that seem to pose the greatest challenges for an agrarian society, such as Japan was in the 1870's, in order to show how an economically less developed country becomes an advanced industrialized nation.

    Originally published in 1980.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5582-7
    Subjects: History, Management & Organizational Behavior

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-2)
    Solomon B. Levine, Hisashi Kawada and S.B.L.
  4. I. Human Resources in Modern Economic Development
    (pp. 3-21)

    This study deals with institutions—in particular, educational and training institutions that generate the human resources required by modern economic enterprises. The study focuses on how these institutions emerged and evolved in Japan since that country began its transformation from a traditional agrarian society in the mid-nineteenth century to an advanced industrialized nation during the first half of the twentieth century. It fills a gap in the knowledge about the process by which an economically less developed country begins and sustains modern economic growth. Only in recent years has there been systematic treatment of the elements involved in such growth....

  5. II. Formal Education in the Development of Japan’s Modern Economy
    (pp. 22-59)

    Although the relationship between a nation’s modern economic growth and its formal education system is not precisely understood, there is little question that they go hand in hand and that one paves the way for the other. The purpose of this chapter is to trace the critical points of this relationship during the course of Japan’s economic advance and industrialization that began more than a century ago.¹ While it is not possible here to detail either the process of Japan’s economic development or the evolution of the Japanese formal education system, enough is known about the principal trends of each...

  6. III. Educational Indicators of Japan’s Human Resource Development
    (pp. 60-91)

    Generally, Japan’s human resource strategy since the beginning of the modern period may be seen in the quantitative “output” of its educational system. The relationship between the “output” and economic growth helps to delineate strategic choices that the Japanese made with somewhat greater precision than would a description of the development of Japan’s educational system. In addition, quantification helps in making comparisons with the experiences of other nations.¹ Ideally, quantitative analysis of human resource development might also include data for items other than education, such as health and cultural values; but, since the focus of this study is on the...

  7. IV. Industrial Training in Japan: An Overview
    (pp. 92-135)

    ALTHOUGH the new Meiji leaders in 1868 quickly recognized the need to develop industrial skills for Japan’s modernization, they had no clear-cut plan for achieving this. It took at least thirty years after the Restoration for their strategy to take shape. Initially there was a build-up of a highly structured system of formal education including a variety of specific vocational tracks. However, after considerable experimentation in the schools and ministries, the problem of generating modern industrial skills was left largely at the operating enterprise level for solution.¹

    In this chapter, our purpose is to concentrate upon the efforts to spread...

  8. V. Training in Basic Industries: Steel and Shipbuilding in the Prewar Period
    (pp. 136-175)

    THE mark of a nation’s advance into modern industrialization is the development of domestic iron and steel manufacturing on a major scale and the use of the output for sophisticated heavy machinery, modern weapons, and complex products such as large ocean-going vessels. Although Japan’s modern economic growth followed the familiar path of first emphasizing light industry, particularly textiles, conscious attempts to establish a heavy industry base began even prior to the Meiji Restoration.¹ It was clear to the Tokugawa leadership that with the arrival of Perry's Black Ships Japan’s national independence was threatened. The threat almost immediately gave impetus to...

  9. VI. Training within Government-Owned Industries: Railways and Telecommunications
    (pp. 176-205)

    ALTHOUGH many of Japan’s modern industrial enterprises began under public ownership, by the 1880s the Meiji government had sold most of them to private individuals and companies. There were notable exceptions, however, to this divestiture process. Various factories, shipyards, mines, and related operations were retained under direct government control usually as part of military arsenals. In fact, as late as 1890, government-operated plants still accounted for more than four-fifths of Japan’s factory employment. The growth of heavy industry after the Sino-Japanese War also mainly served the government’s armament goals culminating in the opening of the publicly owned Yahata mills in...

  10. VII. Training Patterns in Traditional Private Industries: Banking, Textiles, and Mining
    (pp. 206-257)

    OF major importance in the early phases of the modern economic growth of Japan was the expansion of private-sector industries that had pre-Meiji beginnings. Their approach to human resource development contrasted with the intensive withinenterprise training of the new technologically advanced industries treated in the preceding two chapters. Such private companies, despite initial government operation in some cases, depended far less on internal programs. Moreover, considerable variations emerged among these firms. Differences in training reflected differing conditions facing each industry, particularly the level of technology and pace of technological change, educational and skill requirements for work force members, availability of...

  11. VIII. Training in Capital-Intensive Industries: Heavy Machinery, Electrical Equipment, and Chemicals
    (pp. 258-282)

    SOME of the most systematic industrial training in Japan has developed in the privately owned, technologically advanced enterprises in heavy machinery, electrical equipment, and chemicals production. Although these industries trace their origins to the late nineteenth century, major growth did not take place until the 1930s; along with steel and shipbuilding they became the center of Japan’s high-speed economic growth after 1955.

    Like other sectors already discussed, the main outlines of training patterns in these industries emerged before World War II. In common with others was an early and intense development of the highest manpower levels and a notable lag...

  12. IX. Human Resources in Japanese Industry: Problems and Prospects
    (pp. 283-311)

    EVEN though the studies in the preceding chapters are limited to industrially advanced sectors of the Japanese economy, one may conclude that Japan’s experience in generating and employing human resources for modern industries has been varied and diffuse. No single pattern emerges. Certainly, however, except for the government’s initial launching of modern enterprises and its continued ownership and management of several basic industrial operations, the private sector in Japan has played the preponderant role in human resource development for modern industry. In this sense, Japanese private enterprise has paralleled the American experience.¹ In both of these market-oriented industrial economies, privately...

  13. Bibliography
    (pp. 312-320)
  14. Index
    (pp. 321-332)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 333-333)