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Industrialization and Urbanization

Industrialization and Urbanization: Studies in Interdisciplinary History

Theodore K. Rabb
Robert I. Rotberg
Thomas W. Africa
Jon Amsden
Stuart M. Blumin
Stephen Brier
Clyde Griffen
Michael R. Haines
Peter R. Knights
Virginia Yans-McLaughlin
Franklin F. Mendels
Daniel T. Rodgers
Gilbert Rozman
William H. Sewell
Howard Spodek
Stephan Thernstrom
Paul Wheatley
Edward Anthony Wrigley
Copyright Date: 1981
Pages: 330
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  • Book Info
    Industrialization and Urbanization
    Book Description:

    Focusing on urban development and the influence of urbanization on industrialization, this volume reflects a radical rethinking of the traditional approaches to the development of cities.

    Originally published in 1981.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5655-8
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-2)

    From its very first issue in 1970, theJournal of Interdisciplinary Historyhas encouraged its readers radically to rethink the ways in which historians and social scientists have approached the development of cities—what happened in cities in the past, how cities operated, how cities influenced the lives of their inhabitants, and what contributions urbanization made to industrialization. TheJournalhas emphasized those focuses which were new and methodologically innovative and has also attempted to expand the usual horizon of urban studies to include cities outside the West.

    This book is a collection of essays drawn from the first nine...

  4. Urban Violence in Imperial Rome
    (pp. 3-22)
    Thomas W. Africa

    Bread, circuses, and an occasional riot—such, we are told, were the main interests of the populace in Imperial Rome: an indolent and debased people, glutted with free food and addicted to spectacles. Tacitus sneered at “the sordid plebs who hang about the Circus and theaters,”¹ and Juvenal impaled them with an epigram: “The people, who once bestowed republican offices, have now only two interests, bread and games.”² These charges have been echoed by many modern authors, and even authorities of the stature of Rostovtzeff repeat them.³

    Evidence for the history of the Roman commons is fragmentary, but, even so,...

  5. The Process of Modernization and the Industrial Revolution in England
    (pp. 23-58)
    E. A. Wrigley

    Modernization and industrialization are terms widely used in descriptions of the changes which have occurred in Western societies over the last two or three centuries. Whether they represent concepts able to sustain adequately the explanatory and descriptive loads borne by them is disputable. Yet they enjoy very wide currency and form the most convenient point of departure for a general discussion of the Industrial Revolution in England.

    In this essay I shall describe a view of the relationship between modernization and industrialization which seems to me to be both widespread and unfortunate when applied to the Industrial Revolution in England....

  6. Social Mobility and Phases of Industrialization
    (pp. 59-82)
    Franklin F. Mendels

    The study of historical patterns of social mobility inevitably leads to questions about its determinants and to the search for correlations between mobility and industrialization. This paper is not based on any new empirical research on social mobility. Neither can it pretend to be based on an exhaustive reading of the extant literature. Rather, it focuses on the process of industrialization to provide some thoughts on social mobility during the passage of Western societies from the pre-industrial to the industrial age. Included here in social mobility are occupational, status and geographical, and inter- as well as intra-generational mobility. The discussion...

  7. Social Mobility in a Nineteenth-Century European City: Some Findings and Implications
    (pp. 83-100)
    William H. Sewell Jr.

    Recent international research on social mobility has found that rates of intergenerational upward mobility from manual to non-manual occupations are remarkably similar in nearly all industrialized countries—at least since World War II. This similarity of social mobility patterns has led Lipset and Bendix to conclude that a relatively high and uniform rate of social mobility is “determined by the occupational structure” of advanced industrial societies, and that any “differences in national value systems” have relatively little impact on mobility patterns in such societies. Although I am not convinced that differences in value systems are as unimportant as Lipset and...

  8. Fertility, Nuptiality, and Occupation: A Study of Coal Mining Populations and Regions in England and Wales in the Mid-Nineteenth Century
    (pp. 101-136)
    Michael R. Haines

    Without question one of the important concomitants of modernization and modern economic growth is the structural change for the economy.¹ Clark’s frequently cited model of economic change, for example, uses the share of labor force in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors to gauge the economic progress of a society.² In this context, the importance of geographical and occupational mobility appears central to the whole phenomenon of modernization:

    This shift in sectoral structure of the labor force, combined with the demographic trends and differentials in rates of natural increase, had vast consequences for conditions of life, institutions, and the prevailing...

  9. Coal Miners on Strike: The Transformation of Strike Demands and the Formation of a National Union
    (pp. 137-170)
    Jon Amsden and Stephen Brier

    This study employs previously unused data on strikes in American coal mines in order to analyze the development of the coal industry and the emergence of a national union of mine workers. The data we have used are drawn from the Third and Tenth Annual Reports of the U.S. Commissioner of Labor.¹ These reports give detailed observations of virtually every strike which took place in all major U.S. industries between 1881 and 1894. The years for which the data are available span a particularly important period for the development of the coal industry and for the emergence of a national...

  10. Men in Motion: Some Data and Speculations about Urban Population Mobility in Nineteenth-Century America
    (pp. 171-200)
    Stephan Thernstrom and Peter R. Knights

    Americans have long been a restless, migratory people, a fact which has left a deep impression on our national folklore if not yet on the writing of American history. Though it had earlier antecedents, the faith in spatial mobility as the key to virtue and success came into full flower in the nineteenth century. With an open continent beckoning, it was natural that mobility and opportunity were linked in the popular mind with the West and the frontier. But the supply of virgin land, though vast, was not limitless. As early as 1852, brooding about the future, the Superintendent of...

  11. Patterns of Work and Family Organization: Buffalo’s Italians
    (pp. 201-216)
    Virginia Yans McLaughlin

    In their discussions of industrialization and urbanization, some social scientists have described the family as a dependent variable. Implicitly or explicitly, they view technical and economic organization as the prime determinant of family organization.¹ Not surprisingly, power relationships within the family are also frequently considered to be dependent upon economic roles within the larger society. A common assumption, for example, is that because the industrial city offers work opportunities to women, they can become less reliant upon their husbands and fathers, especially if the latter are unemployed. And so, the argument continues, female employment outside the home encourages the decline...

  12. Tradition, Modernity, and the American Industrial Worker: Reflections and Critique
    (pp. 217-244)
    Daniel T. Rodgers

    Much of the current writing on labor history begins in complaint. The field, it is said, suffers from fossilization; its techniques are old-fashioned, its guiding questions archaic, and its institutional preoccupations downright myopic. There is a measure of truth to these charges, but it is a rapidly diminishing measure. Evident signs of change abound: a wholesale embrace of statistical techniques with often iconoclastic results; an egalitarian effort to recover working-class history from the bottom up and, in consequence, a flight from the study of trade unions or, at least, of conservative ones; and a new interest in the complex web...

  13. In Pursuit of the American City
    (pp. 245-250)
    Stuart M. Blumin

    Although one hears often enough that the city has replaced the frontier in the minds of American social historians, the urban past somehow resists playing the central role that many would like to assign to it. Frontier historians were never at a loss to explain how and why the Western fringe of the American population was at its social, cultural, and political center. So confident were they of the formative role of the frontier that empirical research often seemed more of a formality than a necessity. Urban historians seem to suffer from an opposite malady—legions are at work on...

  14. Public Opinion in Urban History
    (pp. 251-256)
    Clyde Griffen

    With fluent prose and clear organization, Frisch unfolds the inner logic of proposals, decisions, and rhetoric with which Springfield’s leaders grappled with the problems of growth. True to the promise in his introduction, he emphasizes the conceptual implications of the details of urban biography. The result is a major contribution to our understanding of the process of urbanization in the United States, and especially of the evolution in ideas of public and private responsibility. Even if one remains unconvinced, as this reviewer does, that “the community” or “the people” in any inclusive sense participated in this intellectual journey, both the...

  15. Urban Networks and Historical Stages
    (pp. 257-284)
    Gilbert Rozman

    Possibilities for comparing premodern cities are countless, but research-strategies for guiding comparisons away from circuitous or dead-end paths are rare. In order to articulate a general strategy for research, a number of fundamental characteristics of urban systems should be considered. In comparative terms, the definition or what qualifies as a city, the sample number of cities, the historical period selected, the larger societal context, and the focus on particular aspects of the urban environment all merit attention. This article examines these elements of urban research separately and considers how they fit together in an overall strategy for using relatively limited...

  16. From “Parasitic” to “Generative”: The Transformation of Post-Colonial Cities in India
    (pp. 285-316)
    Howard Spodek

    The bipolar concept of generative and parasitic cities, most explicitly expressed by Hoselitz, has penetrated the literature of pre-industrial cities. As Hoselitz describes it, the concept is economic: “A city will be designated as generative if its impact on economic growth is favorable, i.e., if its formation and continued existence and growth is one of the factors accountable for the economic development of the region or country in which it is located. A city will be considered as parasitic if it exerts an opposite impact.”¹ Underlying this economic definition, however, remains an even more significant political question: For whose interests...

  17. The City Overseas
    (pp. 317-323)
    Paul Wheatley

    These volumes are sequelae to conferences arranged to investigate the phenomenon of contemporary urbanism in two of Asia’s major cultural realms. Beyond that, they have little in common.The City in Communist Chinahas a strong political science bias despite the contributions of scholars from other disciplines. It is also strongly institutionalist in orientation, generally inductive in approach, minimally functionalistic, and relies primarily upon empirically generated concepts.Urban Indiais more diversified in both authorship and methodology. It investigates a broader range of urban phenomena, includes a higher proportion of deductive studies, is more functionalistic in approach, and is more...

  18. The Contributors Reader on Industrialization and Urbanization
    (pp. 324-325)