Skip to Main Content
Have library access? Log in through your library
Political System and Change

Political System and Change: A World Politics Reader

IKUO KABASHIMA
LYNN T. WHITE
Copyright Date: 1986
Pages: 394
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztn7s
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Political System and Change
    Book Description:

    Political System and Change includes articles on the analytic categories political scientists have developed for understanding the Third World. Many essays in this anthology are concise summaries of later books that are now famous landmarks in the study of comparative politics.

    Originally published in 1986.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5446-2
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

Export Selected Citations Export to NoodleTools Export to RefWorks Export to EasyBib Export a RIS file (For EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero, Mendeley...) Export a Text file (For BibTex)
  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. THE CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. INTRODUCTION

    • SYSTEMATIC DEFINITIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT POLITICS
      (pp. 3-20)
      LYNN T. WHITE III, IKUO KABASHIMA and GABRIEL A. ALMOND

      THINKING implies comparisons. To make these, stable categories are needed for understanding politics and the ways it changes in various countries. Clearly defined,unchanging terms—better yet, a set or “system” of interrelated and mutually consistent definitions—are inevitable for such study. There is no way to do without them. But a natural tension arises in political science, since politics has the nasty habit of not standing still. “System” and “change” conflict with each other.

      To compare politics across different places in space or eras in time, the usual means is to define changes by functional categories. The functions are...

  5. POLITICAL SYSTEM:: DEFINITIONS AND FUNCTIONS

    • AN APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL SYSTEMS
      (pp. 23-40)
      DAVID EASTON

      IN an earlier work I have argued for the need to develop general, empirically oriented theory as the most economical way in the long run to understand political life. Here I propose to indicate a point of view that, at the least, might serve as a springboard for discussion of alternative approaches and, at most, as a small step in the direction of a general political theory. I wish to stress that what I have to say is a mere orientation to the problem of theory; outside of economics and perhaps psychology, it would be presumptuous to call very much...

    • A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH TO POLITICAL SYSTEMS
      (pp. 41-72)
      GABRIEL A. ALMOND

      DURING the past decade two tendencies have come to dominate the field of comparative politics. One of these is the concern for theoretical explication and methodological rigor, and the second is the emphasis on field studies of the “emerging,” “new,” and “non-Western” nations. The theoretical tendency has largely taken the form of applications of “systems” theory to the study of politics, and the chief criticism of this approach has been that it is a static theory, not suitable for the analysis and explanation of political change.

      The great output of empirical studies of contemporary politics in the new and emerging...

    • POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT, POLITICAL SYSTEMS, AND POLITICAL GOODS
      (pp. 73-92)
      J. ROLAND PENNOCK

      POLITICAL theorists from Plato to the present have concerned themselves not only with the nature of the polity as we know it, but with how it came to be, what purposes it serves, and by what stages it has developed. The last item, however, has more often than not been slighted. This lack now forces itself on our attention for an obvious reason: Never before have so many “new states” come into being in so short a span of time and never before have students of politics been provided with so many living examples of states at all stages of...

  6. POLITICAL ORDER

    • POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL DECAY
      (pp. 95-139)
      SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON

      AMONG the laws that rule human societies,” de Tocqueville said, “there is one which seems to be more precise and clear than all others. If men are to remain civilized or to become so, the art of associating together must grow and improve in the same ratio in which the equality of conditions is increased.”¹ In much of the world today, equality of political participation is growing much more rapidly than is the “art of associating together.” The rates of mobilization and participation are high; the rates of organization and institutionalization are low. De Tocqueville’s precondition for civilized society is...

    • PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN CIVIL VIOLENCE
      (pp. 140-173)
      TED GURR

      UNTIL recently many political scientists tended to regard violent civil conflict as a disfigurement of the body politic, neither a significant nor a proper topic for their empirical inquiries. The attitude was in part our legacy from Thomas Hobbes’s contention that violence is the negation of political order, a subject fit less for study than for admonition. Moreover, neither the legalistic nor the institutional approaches that dominated traditional political science could provide much insight into group action that was regarded by definition as illegal and the antithesis of institutionalized political life. The strong empirical bent in American political science led...

    • TOWARD EXPLAINING MILITARY INTERVENTION IN LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS
      (pp. 174-202)
      ROBERT D. PUTNAM

      MILITARY intervention in politics is extremely common. Outside the North Atlantic area, the armed forces are more likely than not to be among the most important power contenders in any political system, and military regimes are at least as widespread as either totalitarian or democratic ones. It is surprising, therefore, that until recently this phenomenon has attracted little attention from students of politics. Though there has been some speculation about the causes of military intervention, our actual knowledge of the subject is meager indeed.

      The preeminence of the military in politics in Latin America has long been recognized, but, even...

  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES

    • MODERNIZATION AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY: A Theoretical Exploration
      (pp. 205-220)
      CLAUDE AKE

      WHAT is the effect of the process of modernization on political stability? That is the question I want to explore theoretically. I will suggest that there are no plausible reasons for the expectation that the process of modernization is destabilizing, and also that there is no problem of political instability in transitional societies or anywhere else. Let us begin by examining some of the arguments used to support the thesis that modernization causes political instability.

      The type of argument that recurs most frequently in the literature is the one that links modernization with anomie or with role conflict. The substance...

    • A DYSRHYTHMIC PROCESS OF POLITICAL CHANGE
      (pp. 221-248)
      C. S. WHITAKER JR.

      WITH several notable and recent exceptions, the current literature on “modernization” in “developing countries” implicitly or explicitly assumes an inherent irreconcilability between “modern” and “traditional” values, institutions, and behavior patterns. Related to this assumption is the expectation that whenever important elements of these two social systems collide, the natural result is social convulsion.

      It is typical of this literature to qualify these assumptions with the caveat, commonly employed in conjunction with the use of “ideal types,” that differences between these two apparent classes of society are only relative, or that “pure” cases of either type are never manifested. Logically, however,...

    • TOWARD A FRAMEWORK FOR THE STUDY OF POLITICAL CHANGE IN THE IBERIC-LATIN TRADITION: The Corporative Model
      (pp. 249-278)
      HOWARD J. WIARDA

      IN the early 1960’s a great deal of “scare” literature was produced concerning Latin America. The titles and subtitles of many of the books and articles written during the period help bear this contention out: “The Eleventh Hour,” “Reform or Revolution,” “Evolution or Chaos.”¹ The concern of scholars and public officials, stemming principally from the Cuban revolution, was that Latin America was about to explode in violent upheaval, that unless democratic reforms were quick in forthcoming, the Latin American nations would soon be the victims of Castro-Communist takeovers. The “one-minute-to-midnight” mentality shaped not only a great deal of official thinking...

    • SUPPORTIVE PARTICIPATION WITH ECONOMIC GROWTH: The Case of Japan
      (pp. 279-308)
      IKUO KABASHIMA

      THE simultaneous advancement of economic development, socioeconomic equality, and democracy in terms of broad-based political participation is a difficult goal for political elites because these three variables are not readily compatible. According to Huntington and Nelson, political elites in developing countries must choose between two conflicting paths in the later phase of development: the technocratic model and the populist model.¹ On the first developmental path, political elites repress political participation in order to promote economic development; as a result, economic inequality may increase. On the second path, the elites allow more political participation, promoting economic equality through governmental programs that...

  8. AGENDA FOR FUTURE STUDY

    • THE IDEA OF POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT: From Dignity to Efficiency
      (pp. 311-346)
      HARRY ECKSTEIN

      FROM one point of view, the study of political development is a major area of achievement in recent political inquiry; from another, which matters more, it is a conspicuous failure.

      What has been achieved is great and rapid growth. The study of political development, in contemporary form, started barely two decades ago.¹ In short order, an extraordinary boom occurred in publications on the subject. By 1975, a standard overview listed over two hundred pertinent works. Accretion became especially rapid after 1964, though it seems to have “peaked out” (at a high level of production) in 1970-1971.²

      The negative side is...

    • REQUIEM OR NEW AGENDA FOR THIRD WORLD STUDIES?
      (pp. 347-376)
      TONY SMITH

      THANKS to the vigor of the dependency school’s attack on the established “developmentalist” framework for studying change in the Third World, debates going on today in development studies are perhaps the most interesting and important in the field of comparative politics. The debates are interesting because, both methodologically and substantively, a wide range of new issues has been raised in a field that by around 1970 had become relatively moribund. They are important because, in the Third World especially, the mainstream developmentalist models earlier formulated in the United States—such as those sponsored by the Social Science Research Council (SSRC)...

  9. Back Matter
    (pp. 377-383)