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Conflict and Cohesion in Socialist Yugoslavia

Conflict and Cohesion in Socialist Yugoslavia: Political Decision Making Since 1966

STEVEN L. BURG
Copyright Date: 1983
Pages: 386
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7ztzcr
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  • Book Info
    Conflict and Cohesion in Socialist Yugoslavia
    Book Description:

    Steven L. Burg views Yugoslav politics since 1966 in terms of the communist leadership's efforts to preserve political cohesion in the face of powerfully divisive domestic conflicts. He examines the bases of those conflicts, their suppression with the establishment of communist power, and their reemergence and escalation into crisis during the late 1960s and early 1970s--a period when the conflict between hostile nationalisms, reinforced by regional economic differences, directly challenged communist power.

    Originally published in 1983.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5337-3
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. vii-viii)
    S.L.B.
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. LIST OF TABLES
    (pp. xi-2)
  5. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-7)

    The lands known today as Yugoslavia have long been divided by more than the mountain ranges, river valleys, and forests that separate them into distinct geographic regions. Through the centuries these divisions have been reinforced by others based on national, cultural, religious, linguisitic, economic, and political differences arising out of both the distinct historical traditions of the peoples native to these lands and the distinct cultural and political legacies of those who have conquered them. In comparison to the centurieslong history of these lands as the disputed territories of first one principality, kingdom, or empire and then another, the contentious...

  6. I. SOCIAL CLEAVAGES AND POLITICAL CONFLICT IN THE YUGOSLAV LANDS TO 1966
    (pp. 8-30)

    Yugoslavia is divided by language, religion, culture, territory, and nationality. None of these divisions, however, completely coincides with or cross-cuts another. Nationality divides the society into mutually exclusive and mutually antagonistic groups. But each national group shares at least one primordial characteristic with one or more others. For some groups that characteristic is simply ancestral territory. For others it is a common religion or language. At the same time, however, no single primordial characteristic is shared by all the nationalities. Yugoslavia is similarly divided by wide disparities in levels of regional development. These disparities neither completely coincide with nor cross-cut...

  7. II. INTERREGIONAL CONFLICT AND THE FEDERALIZATION OF YUGOSLAV POLITICS, 1966-1969
    (pp. 31-82)

    In the period following the ouster of Ranković, the liberal majority in the party leadership carried out changes that dramatically restructured Yugoslav politics. In reaction to the abuses of the conservative opposition, the post-Ranković leadership restricted the activities of the secret police apparatus and subordinated it to closer, regional supervision, thereby reducing the coercive powers of the central party organs and permitting the rise of autonomous, nonparty social groups, organizations, and institutions. The latter process was stimulated even further by implementation during this period of the economic reforms that had been adopted earlier, but opposed by Ranković. Other changes in...

  8. III. THE “YUGOSLAV CRISIS”: NATIONAL, ECONOMIC, AND IDEOLOGICAL CONFLICT AND THE BREAKDOWN OF ELITE COOPERATION, 1969-1972
    (pp. 83-187)

    The Ninth Party Congress of March 1969 was followed by a period of prolonged conflict both between and within the nine blocs into which Yugoslavia had become divided. At the mass level, inter-nationality hostilities continued to intensify and, by mid-1971, threatened to erupt in renewed fratricidal war. Such war promised not only to tear Yugoslavia apart but to destroy several of the republics and provinces, as well. Among the leadership, conflicts arising out of the opposing economic interests of the regions were complicated by the party’s continuing commitment to the seemingly incompatible goals of extending economic and political reforms on...

  9. IV. THE SEARCH FOR A REGULATORY FORMULA: WRITING THE 1971 CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AND THE 1974 CONSTITUTION
    (pp. 188-241)

    The Yugoslav crisis was played out in large part in the language of constitutional reform. The communist political leadership attempted to regulate interbloc conflicts by altering the formal division of authority between center and region and by changing the organizational and procedural provisions for decision making at the center. To do so required that they amend the federal constitution.

    Instances of constitutional change present dual opportunities to study a political leadership’s search for a formula by which to regulate the conflicts that divide its country. First, they produce explicit statements of the formal “rules of the game” agreed to by...

  10. V. THE REGULATORY FORMULA IN PRACTICE: DECISION MAKING IN THE FEDERATION SINCE 1974
    (pp. 242-300)

    The political order established with the adoption of a new constitution in 1974 retains the essential characteristics of the system that had been developing since 1966. It preserves the division of Yugoslav society into distinct ethnoterritorial blocs, and broad areas of political decision making continue to be carried out on the basis of interbloc negotiation and consensus. Indeed, some of the organizational and procedural changes introduced in 1974 contributed to the further institutionalization of these characteristics by eliminating problems and anomalies evident during 1972 and 1973. Unlike the period up to 1972, however, the central leadership in Yugoslavia has since...

  11. VI. THE PARTY AND THE REGULATION OF CONFLICT
    (pp. 301-335)

    The ability of the party to provide essential support for the successful operation of the Yugoslav political system has in the past been determined by the ability of the party leadership to agree on policy and ensure that individual communists conform to it. Agreement among the party leadership has been facilitated by a high degree of confidence and mutual trust among its members, by their adherence to a principle of reciprocity in decision making, and by their willingness and ability to reconcile contradictory interests by employing a variety of pragmatic conflict-resolving techniques well-known in the West. These conditions, absent during...

  12. CONCLUSION: CONFLICT AND COHESION IN POST-TITO YUGOSLAVIA
    (pp. 336-349)

    The post-Tito leadership today confronts a set of economic problems that threaten the stability of the Yugoslav system. These include a serious balance of payments problem fueled by the cost of imported energy and by the inability of Yugoslav manufactured goods to compete in Western markets; increasing foreign indebtedness; rampant inflation; excessive investment in industry at the expense of agricultural development; shortages of food, consumer goods, and raw materials; low productivity; and unemployment. The management of such problems would be difficult in any country. In Yugoslavia it is made even more difficult by the fact that actions intended to relieve...

  13. WORKS CITED
    (pp. 350-360)
  14. INDEX
    (pp. 361-365)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 366-366)