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The Midi in Revolution

The Midi in Revolution: A Study of Regional Political Diversity, 1789-1793

Copyright Date: 1986
Pages: 320
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  • Book Info
    The Midi in Revolution
    Book Description:

    Hubert Johnson examines eight departments in southeastern France from the outbreak of the French Revolution through the Federalist Revolt in 1793. This study of the Midi clarifies the ways in which the revolt embodied the political, social, and economic contradictions of the region.

    Originally published in 1986.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5436-3
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
    (pp. vii-vii)
    (pp. vii-vii)
    (pp. viii-viii)
    (pp. ix-1)
  7. [Map]
    (pp. 2-2)
  8. INTRODUCTION Comparative History and Revolution
    (pp. 3-17)

    This study is a history of a region of southern France: the Midi. But it is a regional history of a special type because it concentrates on a number of quite different departments and covers a short period of time, from 1789 to 1793. It is therefore an exercise in comparative history that begins with the outbreak of the Revolution and closes with the political revolt against the Convention known as Federalism.

    Comparative history has been associated with rather grandiose efforts to compare and contrast widely diverse civilizations, cultures, or states in order to derive certain sociological absolutes. The most...

  9. CHAPTER ONE The Economics of Political Instability
    (pp. 18-55)

    Naturally people resort to revolution as the result of a number of pressures and influences, and it would be simpleminded to claim that they are always motivated by deprivation of food or some other material cause. It would be equally wrong to ignore the presence of some economic causation, and therefore it is important to gain an understanding of the economic life of the Midi. It is not possible to say that the eight chosen departments (Isère, Drôme, Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Gard, Hérault, Aude, and Haute-Garonne) possessed the same culture; they did not even share the same language, nor did their...

  10. CHAPTER TWO Rhetoric, Symbolism, and Ceremonies
    (pp. 56-81)

    The Revolution did not develop in the same way in each of the eight departments of the Midi considered in the present work. Politicians in quiet departments who came to power in 1789 could often pursue successful local careers in office until 1793 because their ideas remained congruent with political reality; they shared a common conservatism with their constituents. But when a similar “man of 1789,” imbued with the principles so popular in public discourse in that year, tried to remain in power in a trouble-ridden department, he found himself quickly thwarted and relegated to obscurity. Politicians truly had to...

  11. CHAPTER THREE The Men of 1789
    (pp. 82-119)

    In the course of 1789 a great shuffling of officeholders occurred throughout France as the agencies of the Old Regime began to crumble and those of the new order began to emerge. Persons who occupied positions of real political authority such as intendants, subdelegated intendants, judges of parlements, and tax farmers (collectors), seldom were able to continue to play roles of importance in the new regime. The upset of personnel was accompanied by an upset in governmental procedures. In those regions where violence was especially rife the pace of such change was more rapid than in those where violence was...

  12. CHAPTER FOUR Power Claimants: Counterrevolutionaries, 1790-1792
    (pp. 120-144)

    Although nonaristocratic notables took power in the eight departments which formed the core of the Midi in 1789 and 1790 they did not enjoy a harmonious and peaceful administration. The Revolution, once started, could not be contained within the modest bounds they had set. At first the new administrations encountered extreme opposition from many disaffected persons in certain regions who felt that the new legislation had already gone much further than they were willing to consider right and prudent. These persons quickly became identified as counterrevolutionaries and were by no means all of the same type or ideology. Some were...

  13. CHAPTER FIVE Rise and Decline of the Popular Revolution
    (pp. 145-173)

    In contrast to the political factions that were formed by bourgeois notables in communities throughout the Midi during the Revolution, those that were the product of popular sentiment were inchoate, episodic, and seldom decisive in obtaining long-term results. Nevertheless, there existed a fair number of such movements which can be identified, and they played very important roles in places where they emerged. Significantly, such organization of the urban and rural mass of people was more pronounced in the troublesome departments than in the tranquil ones: violence was partly the result of the activity of mass movements as well as being...

  14. CHAPTER SIX The Radical Revolution of 1792
    (pp. 174-221)

    Within the Midi many different political movements flourished. Some were basically conservative and were dedicated to the furtherance of the revolutionary legislation with the least amount of trouble. Others were definitely rightist in nature and aimed, covertly or overtly, at the overthrow of the revolutionary accomplishments, if necessary by violence. There was a third movement, however, which can be described as “radical.” Proponents of one phase of the Revolution were frequently disgruntled opponents of another phase. Midi radicals, however, existed from the beginning as a separate group with extremist propensities. Their numbers were few at first and later grew much...

  15. CHAPTER SEVEN The Spread of Federalism in the Midi: May-June 1793
    (pp. 222-249)

    On May 31, 1793, a coalition of deputies led by Marat, Robespierre, and others achieved an alliance with the Paris sections: a riot ensued which intimidated the Convention. As a result twenty-nine other deputies including Brissot, Vergniaud, and Barbaroux (later identified as the Girondins) were proscribed. The eviction of these deputies helped to cause a dangerous separatist movement in France known as Federalism. The traditional explanation of the regional revolts in southeastern France, Lyons, Bordeaux, and some areas in the channel coast departments was given by Henri Wallon in 1886. He argued that the Convention had been captured by a...

  16. CHAPTER EIGHT The Midi in Revolution
    (pp. 250-266)

    At no time was the unity of the Midi more pronounced than at the very moment when the Revolution began. When the primary assemblies of 1789 were convened for the purpose of formulating the cahiers, the entire region was made aware of a great national crisis. Subsequently, however, this unity was succeeded by a gradual disintegration as the successor departments of Languedoc, Dauphiné, and Provence desperately tried to accommodate themselves to the great political changes coming from Paris. Each locality developed its own version of the Revolution, and political leaders tried to achieve congruence between national and local aspirations. But,...

  17. APPENDIX I. Quantitative Methodology
    (pp. 267-275)
  18. APPENDIX II. General Cahiers of the Third Estates of Midi Cities
    (pp. 276-280)
    (pp. 281-292)
  20. INDEX
    (pp. 293-309)
  21. Back Matter
    (pp. 310-310)