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Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey

Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey

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    Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey
    Book Description:

    This book shows that governmental efforts to expand corporatism in the major occupational associations intensified conflict in and between socioeconomic sectors, encouraged militancy from disaffected group leaders, and promoted polarization between pluralist and corporatist associations.

    Originally published in 1984.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5331-1
    Subjects: Political Science, History

Table of Contents

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  1. CHAPTER 1 Interest Groups, Political Participation, and Political Development
    (pp. 3-32)

    Since the end of World War II, the rapid proliferation of a wide variety of interest groups along with their increasing interaction with one another, with political party organizations, and with various governmental institutions has added an important new dimension to the politics of contemporary Turkey. The rapid emergence and diffusion of this network of groups representing specialized interests suggest that the Turks have been particularly precocious in developing “the art of association” while implementing broad social and economic change within the context of liberal democracy. This confirms the global hypothesis of most students of associational life since de Tocqueville...

  2. PART I. The Bases of Interest Group Politics

    • CHAPTER 2 Structural Differentiation and Uneven Development: Socioeconomic Bases
      (pp. 35-72)

      The orienting hypotheses of Durkheim and de Tocqueville that associability is a product of the increasing division of labor in society and the expansion of formal political equality provide a useful point of departure for a discussion of the emergence of associational interest representation in modern Turkey. Durkheim’s focus on structural differentiation serves as a reminder that the Turkish economy has become wealthier and more productive not simply because of the growth and increased capacity of previously existing economic activities and structures but because of a more fundamental structural transformation toward a more diversified and specialized form of social and...

    • CHAPTER 3 Political Culture: Attitudinal Bases
      (pp. 73-107)

      Turkish political authorities have recognized the legitimacy of interest group organization and political activity only recently and tentatively. The leaders of the major political parties still have only halfheartedly attempted to accommodate the newly differentiated social and economic groups that have arisen as a result of their own developmental policies. Republican, Democratic, and Justice Party ruling elites have each regarded the growing tendency to express interest conflict through associational activity as a threat to their ability to retain control over the political consequences of rapid social and economic change. Further, while in power, each party has responded with attempts to...

    • CHAPTER 4 Public Policy Toward Associations: Formal-Legal Bases
      (pp. 108-146)

      Public policy toward associations has been influenced both by political culture and by the changing problems of economic development. The general impact of political culture has been to create an unfriendly official attitude toward associational interest representation and political activity. The freedom of association has had a fitful and uneven history in modern Turkey and the legitimacy of interest group politics, as distinguished from party politics, has been recognized only recently and tentatively. Ruling elites have promoted a formally bifurcated set of associational structures containing both corporatist and pluralist elements. But group legitimacy has always been more easily extended when...

  3. PART II. The Network of Interest Group Politics

    • CHAPTER 5 The Emergence and Diffusion of Interest Groups: The Art of Association as a Dimension of Modernization
      (pp. 149-201)

      This section will present the results of a quantitative analysis of the emergence and diffusion of various types of private, voluntary associations from 1946, when the Law of Associations was amended to encourage association formation, through 1971, when military intervention accelerated attempts to restructure associational life. The main purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the kinds of voluntary associations that have arisen in the context of Turkey’s “debilitating pluralism” and to explore their underlying socioeconomic and political bases. As such it will present a backdrop for our discussion in chapter 6 of the recent emphasis on...

    • CHAPTER 6 Strategies of Interaction and Influence
      (pp. 202-281)

      In june 1970 industrial workers in the Istanbul-Izmit area joined in a massive march to protest a new law regulating union organization and collective bargaining. The march soon erupted into a workers’ riot involving over one hundred thousand demonstrators in the largest and most violent worker protest in Turkish history. Tanks and paratroops were mobilized to quell the rioting, which had caused large-scale damage at over one hundred work sites. The organizers of the demonstration were accused both by the government and rival labor leaders of fomenting class warfare and staging a rehearsal for a proletarian revolution. Nine months later,...

    • CHAPTER 7 The Political Subculture of Turkish Interest Group Leaders
      (pp. 282-337)

      In this chapter, we will discuss the issues of corporatism and pluralism from the viewpoint of some of the most important actors in the interest group system. We will focus on the opinions of key business and labor leaders, since they represent the largest and most powerful corporatist and pluralist associations in Turkey. Previously we treated corporatism and pluralism primarily as alternative policies that have been imposed upon different sectors by sucessive governments. Our discussion of interest group leaders’ orientations toward group politics was limited to their immediate reactions to these policies. Until now we have said little about the...

    • CHAPTER 8 Turkish Interest Groups as Channels of Political Participation or Agents of Social Control?
      (pp. 338-354)

      Much of what has been presented in the preceding chapters can be understood as an investigation into an ongoing experiment in political manipulation involving a series of recent state initiatives toward establishing and strengthening stable clientelistic relationships with Turkey’s most important associational leaders. We have characterized this experiment as an attempt to corporatize the most important segments of Turkish associational life, an attempt that does not correspond clearly to either of Schmitter’s notions of state corporatist or societal corporatist strategies. We have argued, instead, that the emerging strategy of corporatization appears to be an unusual and unstable mix of these...

    • CHAPTER 9 Turkey in Comparative Perspective
      (pp. 355-405)

      There are two areas in which the findings of our Turkish case study clash with conventional paradigms of pluralism and corporatism and in which they can contribute to the reformulation of those paradigms. First, no coherent or comprehensive system of interest representation has ever arisen in Turkey that could be characterized simply as either pluralist or corporatist. Turkey is a leading example of a persistently heterogeneous system of representation, in which pluralist and corporatist structures have coexisted and competed for predominance in each historical period and in all major interest sectors. Second, there are some striking similarities between recent efforts...

  4. Appendixes