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Fluid Metals

Fluid Metals: The Liquid-Vapor Transition of Metals

Copyright Date: 1999
Pages: 262
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  • Book Info
    Fluid Metals
    Book Description:

    This is a long-needed general introduction to the physics and chemistry of the liquid-vapor phase transition of metals. Physicists and physical chemists have made great strides understanding the basic principles involved, and engineers have discovered a wide variety of new uses for fluid metals. Yet there has been no book that brings together the latest ideas and findings in the field or that bridges the conceptual gap between the condensed-matter physics relevant to a dense metallic liquid and the molecular chemistry relevant to a dilute atomic vapor. Friedrich Hensel and William Warren seek to change that here. They draw on cutting-edge research and data from carefully selected fluid-metal systems as they strive to develop a rigorous theoretical approach to predict the thermodynamic behavior of fluid metals over the entire liquid-vapor range.

    This book will appeal to theoreticians interested in metal-nonmetal transitions or continuous phase transitions in general. It will also be of great value to those who need to understand the practical applications of fluid metals, for example, as a high-temperature working fluid or as a key component of semiconductor manufacturing.

    Originally published in 1999.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6500-0
    Subjects: Physics

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. vii-xii)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Preface
    (pp. xv-2)
  6. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-10)

    The fluid state of matter exhibits a striking variety of physical properties. Fluid densities, for example, extend over an enormous range from the solid-like densities of liquids near the melting point to those of very dilute gases. Within the benign temperature and pressure ranges of everyday experience, we encounter fluids as diverse as liquid mercury, dense with typical metallic luster; water, relatively dense but transparent to visible light; and air, a dilute, invisible gas. Once we begin to consider the extremes of temperature and pressure achievable in the laboratory, or the even more exotic conditions of geophysical and astrophysical relevance,...

  7. 2 Fluids with State-Dependent Electronic Structure
    (pp. 11-53)

    Fluid metals are examples parexcellenceof materials whose electronic structure and properties depend strongly on the thermodynamic state of the system. The metallic state is inherently limited to densities high enough that electrons can move freely from atom to atom, and to temperatures so low that most atoms are not ionized. These conditions apply within only a small portion of the range of temperatures and pressures available to the fluid state. To begin to understand and, one hopes, topredictthe behavior of electronically conducting fluids under extremes of temperature and pressure, we have to come to terms with...

  8. 3 Alkali Metals
    (pp. 54-113)

    The alkali metals are of major scientific and technological interest. For this reason, a great deal of research effort has been devoted to their physical properties, despite severe experimental difficulties associated with their high chemical reactivity. Some of the current and potential applications of fluid alkali metals are mentioned in Section 1.3. From the perspective of fundamental science, the alkali metals occupy a special place. In their normal (high density) phases, they are among the simplest of metals: their electronic structure and properties more closely approximate those of the free electron gas than any other elemental group.

    The monovalency of...

  9. 4 Mercury
    (pp. 114-161)

    Mercury has the lowest known critical temperature (1478°C) of any fluid metal. It is therefore particularly attractive to experimentalists. Mercury is also considerably less corrosive than many metals, especially the alkali metals discussed in the preceding chapter. These relatively favorable circumstances permit precise measurement of the electrical, optical, magnetic, and thermophysical properties of fluid mercury. With care, one can control temperatures accurately enough to determine the asymptotic behavior of physical properties as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached. Such truly “critical data” are especially valuable for exploring the relationship between the liquid-vapor and MNM transitions. Of the expanded metals exhibiting...

  10. 5 Chalcogens
    (pp. 162-191)

    The liquid chalcogen elements display a remarkable variety of physical properties. The lightest chalcogen, oxygen, forms diatomic molecules and is a pale blue strongly paramagnetic insulator. Next in order of increasing atomic weight, sulfur initially melts to form a light yellow, insulating liquid of relatively low viscosity. The structure is based mainly on S₈ rings. But about 40 degrees aboveTm, sulfur transforms abruptly to a highly viscous liquid as a significant fraction of S₈ rings convert to polymeric chains. At sufficiently high temperature, sulfur behaves like an electronic semiconductor. Selenium, the third chalcogen, is a semiconductor atTmwith...

  11. 6 Critical Fluctuations and Interfacial Phenomena
    (pp. 192-218)

    The singular behavior of the thermodynamic properties of fluids asymptotically close to the liquid-vapor critical point is now well understood (see, e.g., Sengers and Levelt Sengers, 1986). Modern theory incorporates a deep correspondence between the second-order phase transitions occurring in molecular fluids and those in uniaxial ferromagnets, antiferromagnets, alloys with order-disorder phase transitions, etc. Renormalization group analysis introduced by Wilson (1971) is central to contemporary theory. It provides a mathematical basis for describing the order-parameter fluctuations which become predominant near any critical point. Classical approaches such as the van der Waals mean-field theory ignore these large-scale fluctuations. They are thus...

  12. 7 High-Temperature/High-Pressure Techniques
    (pp. 219-234)

    The high critical temperatures and the pressures and the reactive nature of fluid metals at high temperatures present serious challenges to experimentalists. Yet it should be evident from the abundance of experimental data discussed in previous chapters that solutions to the technical problems have been found in many cases. Meaningful data can be obtained even though measurements of physical properties at high temperature and pressure are usually less accurate than similar measurements under ambient conditions. It is the purpose of this chapter to describe a general experimental approach based on use of internally heated autoclaves¹ and to show how this...

  13. Appendix
    (pp. 235-238)
  14. Index
    (pp. 239-243)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 244-244)