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University: International Expectations

Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 154
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  • Book Info
    Book Description:

    They examine the purpose of the university, its evolution and change, its degree of autonomy, evaluations of performance and accountability, its role in guaranteeing human rights, financing, and efficiency and the influence of technology on instruction and structure - all issues that are highly relevant to university leaders and legislators who seek to form and fashion responsive and workable institutions and systems of higher education.The authors suggest measures needed to overcome organizational inertia and recognize the necessity of responsiveness to social and economic changes. Different aspects of worldwide human rights struggles that bear on the university are discussed - for instance the situation in South Africa, where higher education institutions are seeking to redress the misdeeds of the past. The authors also address the issue of public versus private institutional competition and the emergence of the private for-profit institution. Finally, the realities of how and to what extent technology can be relied upon to improve college and university instruction is examined.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6954-6
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xii)
    FKA and KA
  4. Contributors
    (pp. xiii-2)
  5. The Object of the University: Motives and Motivation
    (pp. 3-20)

    The intention in this paper is not to delve into the recesses of the idea of the university as conceived by John Henry Newman¹ or Jaroslav Pelikan,² but rather to discuss the university is relation to government, its objectives, and its role in society. The question is an important one and should be addressed, implicitly or explicitly, by universities, states, and nations. One could say simply, that the quest of the university is for an educated citizenry – probably the essence of the issue. Yet consideration of the issue has historically produced several and varied responses, most of them insightful and...

  6. Reinventing Universities in Australia
    (pp. 21-31)

    My text is a simple one: it is true that the university is one of society’s oldest institutions, and the principal reason for its longevity, I maintain, is that it has learned to adapt to contemporary needs. I go further to argue that the last 150 years has seen periods of adaptation and that we are undergoing one now. All such accommodations are resisted by most of those who inhabit the institution, as one would expect. I argue for some understanding of this process and some realization that without change the university would be bypassed by other competitor institutions in...

  7. Advocacy, Self-management, Advice to Government: The Evolution of the Council of Ontario Universities
    (pp. 32-50)

    Ontario’s seventeen universities devote more effort to collective endeavour than do universities in most other jurisdictions in North America. They do this through the Council of Ontario Universities (COU). The council’s three primary functions areadvocacy(advancing the cause of higher education both publicly and with the provincial government);self-management(providing common services, promoting best practices, undertaking quality appraisals, and occasionally dealing with issues of resource allocation among member institutions); and providingadvice to government(often through jointly staffed committees).

    The role of COU has been influenced by a number of trends and pressures that affect governments and universities in...

  8. Human Rights in Europe: Effects on Governance of British Universities
    (pp. 51-60)

    In this chapter I discuss the possible impact of Britain’s Human Rights Act, 1998 (HRA), on universities¹ in England and Wales in terms of its incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR),² effective 2 October 2000. The legislation had a twoyear incubation period. Like the Olympic long jump, it had an extensive run-up followed by a leap into the unknown, although Scotland had used the ECHR as a measuring rod for legislation and executive acts for one year.

    This trial run in Scotland revealed the wide-ranging effect that the domesticated ECHR will have not only on the substance...

  9. Overcoming Apartheid in South African Universities: Differential Access and Excellence
    (pp. 61-68)

    One of the worst features of the apartheid era in South Africa was the Nationalist government’s fear of a significant, educated black middle class. To ensure that such a bloc did not develop, it spent markedly less on the education of black school children than on their white counterparts. The majority of black children have attended inferior schools, with little infrastructure, few books, and poorly qualified and unprofessional teachers. This is especially the case for mathematics, physical science, and biology. Few black school leavers have the background to succeed at university, and so South Africa faces an enormous challenge in...

  10. Financing University Performance in Britain and the United States
    (pp. 69-80)

    Today, the world economy is changing economic and educational needs more rapidly than ever. Throughout the world governments are being urged to devise new strategies to adapt to a changing economic environment. The result has been a realization that to strengthen their competitive positioning states must increase their involvement in the development of human capital, research, and education. According to Marshall, “[I]n this more competitive world, dominated by knowledge-intensive technology, the keys to economic success are now human resources and not necessarily organizations of production, natural resources, and economies of scale.”¹

    Colleges and universities are at the nucleus of the...

  11. Impediments on the Information Highway: Foreign Jurisdiction over Defamation on the Internet
    (pp. 81-99)

    For academic institutions on both sides of the Atlantic (and the Pacific) the internet is emerging as a favourite medium for students and members of faculty and staff to transmit information, engage in research, stimulate discussion, and exchange messages. This new form of telecommunication, with its universal access, instantaneous use, and global reach, raises important legal issues. U.S. legislatures and courts are attempting to catch up with the internet, as they adapt common law principles, criminal and civil statutes, and constitutional ground rules. Most notably, the U.S. Congress has enacted statutes that accommodate free expression, insulate internet service providers (ISPS)...

  12. Rising Costs and the Survival of America’s Small Private Colleges
    (pp. 100-107)

    In the last few years, attention has focused on the cost of higher education in the United States. Sparked by rapidly rising tuition fees, especially at private colleges, public concern culminated in Congress’s establishment in 1997 of the National Commission on the Cost of Higher Education, which reported to Congress in January 1998.¹ Apart from generating the occasional headline,² the matter has rested there ever since. Certainly, increases in tuition fees have moderated, but public attention evaporates quickly.

    The commission’s report emphasized the crucial difference between price and cost. Parents and students are concerned about the price of college – fees...

  13. The Challenge to the Traditional College by the For-profit College
    (pp. 108-123)

    The rapid growth of for-profit higher education in the United States and elsewhere raises significant issues for private, not-for-profit colleges and universities and for higher education generally. The forprofit sector, which targets primarily working adults, has been taking a consistently larger share of the market for bachelor’s and master’s degrees in the last decade.¹ The University of Phoenix, now the largest U.S. private university, has over 70,000 full-time students and is growing by 20 per cent each year.² The for-profit phenomenon raises issues about the role and goals of higher education and about the viability and relevance of traditional models....

  14. Back to Earth: Expectations for Using Technology to Improve the University Experience
    (pp. 124-138)

    Some observers have suggested that traditional universities will in the new century give way to virtual universities located in cyberspace. I do not see such an extreme change occurring. The heritage and reputation so exemplified by the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, combined with the strength of quality institutions around the globe, argue against that happening. Still, we should aim neither too high, with out-of-this-world expectations about what the new technology can accomplish, or so low that we miss an opportunity to improve education. I would like to bring expectations back to earth, while embracing exciting possibilities for change.