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Paths of Emancipation

Paths of Emancipation: Jews, States, and Citizenship

Pierre Birnbaum
Ira Katznelson
Copyright Date: 1995
Pages: 318
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt7zvptv
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    Paths of Emancipation
    Book Description:

    Throughout the nineteenth century, legal barriers to Jewish citizenship were lifted in Europe, enabling organized Jewish communities and individuals to alter radically their relationships with the institutions of the Christian West. In this volume, one of the first to offer a comparative overview of the entry of Jews into state and society, eight leading historians analyze the course of emancipation in Holland, Germany, France, England, the United States, and Italy as well as in Turkey and Russia. The goal is to produce a systematic study of the highly diverse paths to emancipation and to explore their different impacts on Jewish identity, dispositions, and patterns of collective action.

    Jewish emancipation concerned itself primarily with issues of state and citizenship. Would the liberal and republican values of the Enlightenment guide governments in establishing the terms of Jewish citizenship? How would states react to Jews seeking to become citizens and to remain meaningfully Jewish? The authors examine these issues through discussions of the entry of Jews into the military, the judicial system, business, and academic and professional careers, for example, and through discussions of their assertive political activity.

    In addition to the editors, the contributors are Geoffrey Alderman, Hans Daalder, Werner E. Mosse, Aron Rodrigue, Dan V. Segre, and Michael Stanislawski.

    Originally published in 1995.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6397-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. ix-2)
  4. ONE EMANCIPATION AND THE LIBERAL OFFER
    (pp. 3-36)
    Pierre Birnbautn and Ira Katznelson

    Best known forBerlin Alexanderplatz, the mordant novel. filmed on an epic scale by Fassbinder, Alfred Doblin was a writer, physician, psychiatrist, and socialist, and a quite thoroughly assimilated Jew.¹ In 1924, he publishedReise in Poland. This travel memoir includes evocative and, in retrospect, remarkably poignant descriptions of Jewish life in Warsaw, Vilna, Lublin, Cracow, Lemberg, and Lodz. Doblin’s personal history, his skills as an interested observer, and the timing of his trip make his text a revealing companion for more analytical attempts to apprehend Jewish emancipation in the West, treated not as a unity or a singular experience...

  5. TWO DUTCH JEWS IN A SEGMENTED SOCIETY
    (pp. 37-58)
    Hans Daalder

    The netherlands historically represents the case of a highly pluralist society and, at least initially, consociational state building. At a time when many other European states developed as absolute monarchies, the Dutch Republic grew as a very loose confederacy, after a successful revolt on the basis of particularist interests. During a period of more than two centuries (from about 1579 to 1795), effective power continued to rest with individual provinces, and, within these provinces with the cities, and, to a lesser extent, representatives of the nobility.

    There was a direct relation between regional diversity and religious pluralism. Although the Dutch...

  6. THREE FROM “SCHUTZJUDEN” TO “DEUTSCHE STAATSBÜRGER JÜDISCHEN GLAUBENS”: THE LONG AND BUMPY ROAD OF JEWISH EMANCIPATION IN GERMANY
    (pp. 59-93)
    Werner E. Mosse

    The situation of German Jewry and its relation with “the state” differed from that of other countries in one important respect. Until the creation of the German empire in 1871, there existed no national German state. Instead, at the time when the emancipation debate began in earnest in 1781, the Imperial Diet contained the representatives of 324 principalities, temporal and spiritual.¹ After the Congress of Vienna (1815), with varying degrees of emancipation in the different German states, there were still thirty-eight separate territorial units (excluding Austria). “The process of emancipation,” the leading German historian of the subject has written, “was...

  7. FOUR BETWEEN SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ASSIMILATION: REMARKS ON THE HISTORY OF JEWS IN FRANCE
    (pp. 94-127)
    Pierre Birnbaum

    The entry of the Jews of France into modernity unfolded in a dramatic context. It began with the French Revolution and the difficult Napoleonic epoch and extended through the numerous revolutionary periods of the nineteenth century, all the while undergoing relatively violent periods of crisis. For a long time, the different types of Jewish communities throughout the nation, particularly the important concentrations in eastern France, including Bordeaux, Bayonne, and the Contat Venaissin, had had little means for communication that would allow for a minimum of coordination and solidarity. Each community’s particular notion of Jewish identity and fate produced divergent strategies.¹...

  8. FIVE ENGLISH JEWS OR JEWS OF THE ENGLISH PERSUASION? REFLECTIONS ON THE EMANCIPATION OF ANGLO-JEWRY
    (pp. 128-156)
    Geoffrey Alderman

    Students of Jewish emancipation in Britain must focus their attention at several different levels more or less simultaneously if they wish to obtain a reasonably accurate measure of the interplay of forces that acted upon the object of study. They must also exercise extreme vigilance in relation to the definition of terms. “Emancipation” is usually taken to mean the setting free from legal, social, political, or intellectual disabilities. In some of these senses the emancipation of British Jewry can be traced with comparative ease: for example, the release from legal constraints or the granting of full political equality. Social and...

  9. SIX BETWEEN SEPARATION AND DISAPPEARANCE: JEWS ON THE MARGINS OF AMERICAN LIBERALISM
    (pp. 157-205)
    Ira Katznelson

    Fortune, the country’s leading business publication, devoted much of its February 1936 issue to a special section on “Jews in America.” It sought to confront “a situation dangerous to the State,” when “fearful minorities become suspicious minorities and suspicious minorities, their defensive reactions set on the hair trigger of anxiety, create the animosities they dread.” The magazine worried that because “the apprehensiveness of American Jews has become one of the important influences in the social life of our time,” their reactions to perceived slights risked promoting a level of anti-Semitism that did not exist. Jews were in danger of authoring...

  10. SEVEN THE EMANCIPATION OF JEWS IN ITALY
    (pp. 206-237)
    Dan V. Segre

    For many jews and non-Jews, the history, indeed the very existence of Italian Jewry, has been discovered in this century. Contributing to this discovery, especially on the other side of the Atlantic, were the writings of Primo Levi, H. Stuart Hughes, Susan Zuccotti, Giorgio Bassani, and Italo Svevo, the “Proust” of Trieste, whose work had to wait half a century before achieving worldwide recognition.¹

    To the new popularity of this literary contribution one must add other factors of notoriety, such as the growing Italian involvement in Mediterranean politics; the growth of a vociferous, even if probably a superficial current of...

  11. EIGHT FROM MILLET TO MINORITY: TURKISH JEWRY
    (pp. 238-261)
    Aron Rodrigue

    The developments that led to the transformation of Turkish Jewry in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries can be understood properly only within a comparative perspective. The history of Sephardi Jewry in the modern period, just as the history of the Middle East in general, has too often been treated as an exotic specialty, as a study of rare and quaint communities far from the mainstream of central developments that all took place elsewhere. I will attempt here to place the history of Turkish Jewry within the contexts of both modern Jewish and Middle Eastern history by concentrating upon the twin...

  12. NINE RUSSIAN JEWRY, THE RUSSIAN STATE, AND THE DYNAMICS OF JEWISH EMANCIPATION
    (pp. 262-284)
    Michael Stanislawski

    Any attempt to systematize our understanding of the dynamics of Jewish emancipation must begin with an obvious, though oft-forgotten or misapprehended point: that through the course of the nineteenth century, the vast majority of world Jewry remained unemancipated. By 1871, the end of the four-year period that witnessed the most dramatic concurrence of emancipatory decrees, the Jews of western and central Europe as well as the British Isles and America were indeed emancipated—equal and free citizens of confident new states. But in that same eventful year, of the approximately seven and a half million Jews in the world, at...

  13. List of Contributors
    (pp. 285-286)
  14. INDEX
    (pp. 287-308)