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Japan Before Tokugawa

Japan Before Tokugawa: Political Consolidation and Economic Growth, 1500-1650

John Whitney Hall
Nagahara Keiji
Copyright Date: 1981
Pages: 408
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  • Book Info
    Japan Before Tokugawa
    Book Description:

    These papers by leading specialists on sixteenth-century Japan explore Japan's transition from medieval (Chusei) to early modern (Kinsei) society. During this time, regional lords (daimyo) first battled for local autonomy and then for national supremacy.

    Originally published in 1987.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-5531-5
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. List of Maps
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-1)
  6. [Maps]
    (pp. 2-6)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 7-26)
    John Whitney Hall, Nagahara Keiji and Kozo Yamamura

    During the century and a half from roughly 1500 to 1650 that forms the time span of this volume, Japan emerged from the period of its greatest political fragmentation into what was to be its most successful centralization prior to modern times. As of 1500, the country had entered a time of protracted military competition among the fast-growing local military lords, or daimyo, who had sprung up throughout the provinces. Although both the emperor (tennō) and his military delegate (the Ashikaga shogun) remained in their palaces in the capital city of Kyoto, neither possessed the power to affect events outside...

  8. Chapter 1 The Sengoku Daimyo and the Kandaka System
    (pp. 27-63)
    Nagahara Keiji and Kozo Yamamura

    When we think of the history of sixteenth-century Japan, it is generally the warfare and social disruption of the Sengoku period that spring first to our minds. Yet although the existence of a profound degree of disorder during this period is beyond dispute, it is also true that in the midst of this turmoil the Sengoku daimyo managed to institute a number of policies that gave their rule a considerable degree of stability, among the most important of which were those related to land tenure and taxation. The changes in existing patterns of land tenure and taxation were, on the...

  9. Chapter 2 The Sengoku Daimyo of Western Japan: The Case of the Ōuchi
    (pp. 64-100)
    Matsuoka Hisato and Peter J. Arnesen

    Though the local autonomy that became so pronounced during the Sengoku period had been foreshadowed to some extent by the degree of local power concentrated in the hands of theshugoof the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, the so-calledSengoku daimyoof the sixteenth century differed significantly from their shugo daimyo predecessors. One of the more obvious differences was that a large proportion of Sengoku daimyo had not been particularly important figures before their emergence as regional lords. Typical was the Go-Hōjō family of Odawara, who were the subject of the previous chapter. No more than military commanders...

  10. Chapter 3 The Development of Sengoku Law
    (pp. 101-124)
    Katsumata Shizuo and Martin Collcutt

    This paper seeks to reveal through analysis of the laws issued bySengoku daimyothe concept of ruling authority held by such daimyo during the sixteenth century, and also to define the character and historical significance of Sengoku law in relation to that concept of rule. The adoption of this approach derives initially from an interest in the problem of why the laws issued by Sengoku daimyo should have been so confidently authoritarian when the political authority of Sengoku daimyo was so unstable and was poised on such a weak base. Since the characteristics of Sengoku law seem to have...

  11. Chapter 4 Sengoku Daimyo Rule and Commerce
    (pp. 125-148)
    Sasaki Gin’ya and William B. Hauser

    The control of commerce, which had been of relatively minor concern to theshōenproprietors,shugodaimyo, and localkokujin,became an economic and military necessity for the Sengoku daimyo struggling to establish a firm hold over their domains during the sixteenth century. The study of Sengoku daimyo commercial policies has produced a considerable body of research, and I would like to offer some new perspectives on the subject. First, the tendency up to now has been to focus on separate elements like thekenchi,thekandakasystem, controls over various handicraft industries, or urban policies. I will try here...

  12. Illustrations
    (pp. None)
  13. Chapter 5 The Political Posture of Oda Nobunaga
    (pp. 149-193)
    Fujiki Hisashi and George Elison

    Oda nobunaga’s entry into the capital city of Kyoto in 1568 marked the coming of a new era in Japanese history. Most modern chronologies give this date as the terminal point of the Sengoku period, and Nobunaga’s advent to national prominence is considered the first step in the establishment of the regime of unification that restored order to Japan after a century of war. But contemporary observers who perceived the epochal nature of the event were surely rare. Nobunaga’s march on Kyoto seemed to have traditional objectives: he was a daimyo who championed the cause of one pretender to the...

  14. Chapter 6 Hideyoshi’s Domestic Policies
    (pp. 194-223)
    John Whitney Hall

    Oda Nobunaga’s untimely death left to another the task of fulfilling the dream of national unification. Toyotomi Hideyoshi first fought his way into possession of Nobunaga’s legacy, and then went on to the final conquest of the daimyo of all Japan in 1590, though it remained for Tokugawa Ieyasu to make that conquest secure. Of the “Three Unifiers,” Hideyoshi is clearly the pivotal figure. Not only did he complete the military unification of Japan, but he also presided over vast institutional changes that literally transformed the society of his day.

    The specific measures with which Hideyoshi is identified are well...

  15. Chapter 7 The Commercial and Urban Policies of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi
    (pp. 224-247)
    Wakita Osamu and James L. Mcclain

    Many sharp contrasts in such areas as commercial organization, urban formation, and marketing structure mark the transition from medieval (Chūsei) to early modern (Kinsei) society in sixteenth-century Japan. Among the more conspicuous changes were the replacement of the trade monopolies or guilds (za) by direct daimyo control of trade through the regulation of merchants and artisans, the emergence of a countrywide marketing system linking the central Kinai region merchants with the various domain traders, and the shift in urbanization patterns from one of self-governing communities to one dominated by the casde towns from which military lords and their retainers directed...

  16. Chapter 8 Shogun and Tennō
    (pp. 248-270)
    Asao Naohiro and Marius B. Jansen

    It has been made clear in several previous chapters that under the bakuhan system the emperor held no real power, but only the symbolic authority involved in the granting of court offices and ranks and the determination of era names. Nevertheless, when we reflect on the nature of the modern emperor system, the end product of the elevation of thetennōthat followed the collapse of the Tokugawa order, it is clear that we cannot avoid consideration of the position of the emperor within that order.

    In this essay, although I begin with the Sengoku era, my main focus is...

  17. Chapter 9 The Changing Rationale of Daimyo Control in the Emergence of the Bakuhan State
    (pp. 271-294)
    Sasaki Junnosuke and Ronald P. Toby

    The establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate did not lead immediately to the creation of what historians now call the Kinseibakuhanstate. Just as the shogunate required time to establish its ideological basis of legitimacy—the creation of a new and more comprehensivekōgistructure—so also the daimyo needed time to create the mature Kinsei daimyo domain orhan.The seventeenth century, in most parts of Japan, constituted a period of domain building, and the mature han did not come into being until a variety of institutional changes had been successfully carried out.

    These changes resulted in the creation...

  18. Chapter 10 Dimensions of Development: Cities in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Japan
    (pp. 295-326)
    Wakita Haruko and Susan B. Hanley

    The sengoku period marked a turning point in the development of Japanese cities and in the growth of urban population. To understand this development, we need to have a clear conception of what differentiated the city or town from the village and of the key factors involved in urban growth. In much of the research to date on the subject, Japanese historians have taken European urbanization as a model in their attempts to define the medieval city and to understand the urbanization process. Typically, the emphasis has been placed on the degree to which the communities, as corporate entities, possessed...

  19. Chapter 11 Returns on Unification: Economic Growth in Japan, 1550-1650
    (pp. 327-372)
    Kozo Yamamura

    The economy of Japan underwent a significant transformation during the century of political unification from 1550 to 1650. Agriculture was so fundamentally changed that, using the standards employed by most economic historians, we can only characterize these changes as constituting an “agricultural revolution.” The colorful century of the Sengoku daimyo and their unifiers Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Ieyasu also witnessed an acceleration in the growth of commerce. During the lifetime of Ieyasu (1542-1616), an economy basically composed of local and regional markets was replaced by a highly integrated national market. As the total output of agricultural products rose rapidly, the total...

  20. Glossary
    (pp. 373-382)
  21. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 383-386)
  22. Index
    (pp. 387-392)
  23. Back Matter
    (pp. 393-393)