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The Migration-Displacement Nexus

The Migration-Displacement Nexus: Patterns, Processes, and Policies

Khalid Koser
Susan Martin
Copyright Date: 2011
Edition: 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 264
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  • Book Info
    The Migration-Displacement Nexus
    Book Description:

    The "migration-displacement nexus" is a new concept intended to capture the complex and dynamic interactions between voluntary and forced migration, both internally and internationally. Besides elaborating a new concept, this volume has three main purposes: the first is to focus empirical attention on previously understudied topics, such as internal trafficking and the displacement of foreign nationals, using case studies including Afghanistan and Iraq; the second is to highlight new challenges, including urban displacement and the effects of climate change; and the third is to explore gaps in current policy responses and elaborate alternatives for the future.

    eISBN: 978-0-85745-192-7
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Tables
    (pp. vii-vii)
  4. List of Figures
    (pp. vii-vii)
  5. Acknowledgements
    (pp. viii-viii)
  6. 1 The Migration-Displacement Nexus
    (pp. 1-13)
    Khalid Koser and Susan Martin

    In Afghanistan, one of the world’s largest and most enduring protracted refugee situations coincides with the largest repatriation in recent history. Returnees to Afghanistan from Iran and Pakistan cross paths with increasing numbers of cross-border migrants, traders, and new refugees moving in the opposite direction. Many returning refugees have effectively become internally displaced persons (IDPs); while some refugees have remained as ‘irregular’ migrants in Pakistan or paid smugglers to move them further away.

    In Iraq, the headline that almost three million people have been internally displaced since the American occupation does not do justice to the complexity of internal movements...

  7. 2 Conceptualising Displacement and Migration: Processes, Conditions, and Categories
    (pp. 14-28)
    Oliver Bakewell

    Since the study of forced migration as a distinctive field of academic research – now marked out by research centres, degree courses, and journals – emerged in the 1980s, it has been dogged by debates about its relationship with other fields and academic disciplines. While there appears to be consensus that it should be a multidisciplinary endeavour, there is much less agreement about its scope. Many of these debates are concerned with how far one can distinguish displacement from migration and the value of making such a distinction. In this essay, I argue that the terms migration and displacement are...

  8. 3 A Unified Approach to Conceptualising Resettlement
    (pp. 29-60)
    Robert Muggah

    Resettlement is one of the more diffuse and misunderstood concepts in forced migration studies. While much is written on the dynamics and pathologies associated with population displacement, there is comparatively less intellectual engagement with resettlement. Writing on settlement and resettlement in Africa, Sutton (1977: 219) lamented the ‘inability of research to draw meaningful generalisations from the disparate literature on settlement and resettlement schemes.’ Although Palmer (1974) recognised the virtues in comparing different forms of relocation arising from development, war and ‘overpopulation’, Chambers (1969: 12) condemned resettlement studies to an ‘academic no man’s land … [wherein] no single science or study...

  9. 4 When Does Mobility Matter for Migrants to Colombo?
    (pp. 61-78)
    Michael Collyer

    The internally displaced person (IDP) label, as a category of forced internal migrants, has obvious problems which have not gone unchallenged over the years in which it has been widely used. Most controversially, it privileges migrants over those who stayed behind, even though people who could not migrate may be more vulnerable. Even those who do move face a broad spectrum of possible vulnerabilities. For some, mobility may resolve the issues they faced at their point of origin, so they no longer face any risk and integrate into society with few problems. For others, movement does not reduce or can...

  10. 5 Profiling Urban IDPs: How IDPs Differ From Their Non-IDP Neighbours in Three Cities
    (pp. 79-95)
    Karen Jacobsen

    In 2007, the number of people displaced by conflict and violence within their own countries stood at an estimated 26 million, in 52 countries (Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre 2008). Perhaps as many as half of these internally displaced persons (IDPs) migrate to urban areas, particularly the capital, where they blend into the population of urban poor and migrants. Globally, it is almost impossible to estimate the number of urban IDPs with any accuracy, but an educated guess by the Norwegian Refugee Council’s Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) puts them at about half of all IDPs. Our knowledge and understanding of...

  11. 6 Displacement and the State – the Case of Iraq
    (pp. 96-118)
    Philip Marfleet

    For over 30 years forced migration was an instrument of rule in the hands of Iraq’s Ba’thist regime. Transportation and forcible resettlement were used systematically on a massive scale, producing over a million IDPs.¹ The American occupation, which began in 2003, brought much larger and more intensive movements so that within five years the number of IDPs had increased to almost 3 million.² Many of those affected have faced extreme difficulties. Isolated far from places of origin they have been exposed to political forces increasingly intolerant of the presence of migrants. This chapter examines the background to recent movements, suggesting...

  12. 7 Between Displacement and Migration: Neoliberal Reform and the Residues of War in Rural Nicaragua
    (pp. 119-130)
    Sang Lee

    International migration from the global South to the North has largely overshadowed South-South movements and remains understudied (Farrag 1997; Messina and Lahav 2006; Ratha and Shaw 2006). This raises the question of how well the current theoretical frameworks born out of empirical studies on South-North migration help our understanding of South-South migration. Because migrant-sending countries in the global South are often economically, politically, and/or environmentally unstable, it can be difficult to attribute the motivation to move to any one of these causes singly. Thus, the concepts of forced and voluntary migrant often become problematic in the case of South-South migration,...

  13. 8 The Migration-Displacement Nexus and Security in Afghanistan
    (pp. 131-144)
    Khalid Koser

    Migration and displacement in and from Afghanistan are bewilderingly complex: One of the world’s largest and most enduring protracted refugee situations coincides with the largest repatriation in recent history. Returnees to Afghanistan from Iran and Pakistan cross paths with increasing numbers of cross-border migrants, traders and new refugees moving in the opposite direction. Many returning refugees have effectively become internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Afghanistan, forming one of an increasing number of different IDP categories in that country. Some refugees who have chosen not to return to Afghanistan have remained as ‘irregular migrants’ and in some cases paid smugglers to...

  14. 9 The Migration-Displacement Nexus in China
    (pp. 145-155)
    Xiao Junyong

    In 2000, the Fifth National Census statistics showed that China had a ‘floating population’ of 140 million, defined as people who have lived away from their normal place of residence for over six months. Nationally, 78 per cent of this population moves from rural to urban areas. Transfers within a single province accounted for 91.46 million people, whereas interprovincial migrants accounted for 33.14 million people. According to 2007 statistics, the peak number of migrant workers arriving in Beijing was about 500,000 people per day. More than two-thirds of the vegetables for urban residents in Beijing are supplied by migrant workers....

  15. 10 The Extended Family as a Form of Informal Protection for People Displaced by Operation Restore Order in Zimbabwe
    (pp. 156-167)
    Nedson Pophiwa

    In May 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe launched Operation Murambatsvina (Operation Restore Order – ORO) which led to nationwide forced evictions and demolitions and resulted in the internal displacement of at least half a million people. The United Nations (UN) Mission in Zimbabwe reported that displacement severely strained family networks and traditional coping mechanisms such as taking in and caring for orphans (UN 2005). Nevertheless, extended families continue to offer support to many victims even three years later.

    By studying both the displaced and the recipient families, this chapter shows how both parties coped with displacement and the economic and...

  16. 11 Climate Change and Human Migration
    (pp. 168-196)
    Robert McLeman and Oli Brown

    The evidence that human activities, including deforestation, the burning of fossil fuels and the production of cement, are fundamentally altering the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere is persuasive. Among the key findings in the most recent report of the Intergovernmental on Climate Change are that average Earth surface temperatures have risen by three-quarters of a degree Celsius over the past hundred years, that mean sea levels are presently rising at a rate of 3.1 mm/year, and that ecosystems on all continents and in most oceans show evidence of being affected by regional climatic changes (IPCC 2007b). It is widely agreed...

  17. 12 State and Non-State Actors in Evacuations During the Conflict in Lebanon, July–August 2006
    (pp. 197-215)
    Ray Jureidini

    In this chapter I detail various actors involved with the humanitarian and evacuation efforts during the Lebanese crisis. “The research for this chapter was conducted with the support of the Arab Families Working Group (” It is argued that the assistance and protection of foreign nationals in conflict zones vary considerably. The wealthier countries generally have the willingness and capacity to evacuate their citizens, but the situation for the often larger number of foreign nationals from poorer countries is much moread hocand dependent upon international assistance (in the form of donor support and intergovernmental organisations), and local government...

  18. 13 Internal Displacement and Internal Trafficking: Developing a New Framework for Protection
    (pp. 216-238)
    Susan Martin and Amber Callaway

    Human trafficking for forced labour and sexual exploitation is one of the fastest growing areas of international criminal activity and one that is of increasing concern to the international community. Human trafficking is generally thought of as the movement of people across national borders, but trafficking within borders is also a common phenomenon and perhaps occurs to an even greater extent than transnational trafficking. The displacement of people within their own borders due to armed conflict, internal strife, human rights violations, natural disasters, or development projects is another issue of growing international concern, and one that shares many common elements...

  19. 14 The Impact of Global Migration Governance on UNHCR
    (pp. 239-259)
    Alexander Betts

    The migration-displacement nexus has mainly been used to describe the increasingly inextricable relationship between groups of people on the move. It has been commonly invoked to highlight the intersection of the motives and migratory routes of voluntary and forced migrants, and the undifferentiated nature of national policy responses towards people who cross international borders (Castles and Van Hear 2005; Koser and Martin, this volume). However, an important and neglected aspect of the nexus is at the level of global governance, where it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly separate institutional responsibility for migration and displacement. A new and complex institutional...

  20. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 260-262)
  21. Index
    (pp. 263-288)