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Displacement Beyond Conflict

Displacement Beyond Conflict: Challenges for the 21st Century

Christopher McDowell
Gareth Morrell
Copyright Date: 2010
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 192
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  • Book Info
    Displacement Beyond Conflict
    Book Description:

    There is growing political concern about the increasing numbers of people displaced both within the borders of their countries and internationally. This volume explores the interrelated drivers of contemporary global displacement with a particular focus on low-level conflict, climatic and environmental change and infrastructure development. The authors examine the governance of global displacement assessing the protection needs and responses of national governments and the international community. It further considers options for improving the humanitarian and political management of this growing problem.

    eISBN: 978-1-84545-983-3
    Subjects: Sociology, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-v)
  3. List of Tables, Boxes and Figures
    (pp. vi-vi)
  4. Foreword
    (pp. vii-vii)
    Kate Halff

    With more than twenty-six million people uprooted within their own country by conflicts and human rights violations, internal displacement is one of the great human tragedies of our time. While the international community has slowly come to acknowledge the scale of the problem, recognised the specific vulnerabilities of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and improved its response to their needs, it has until recently mainly focused its attention on one specific category of displaced people – those fleeing conflicts and human rights violations. Over the last few years, it has been acknowledged that the causes of displacement are increasingly rooted in...

  5. Acknowledgements
    (pp. viii-viii)
  6. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. ix-x)
  7. CHAPTER ONE Introduction
    (pp. 1-10)

    We have long been aware of refugee flight and asylum seeking in Western countries occurring against the backdrop of international armed conflict and civil war. The provision of humanitarian assistance and protection to displaced populations has been under constant scrutiny with a general acceptance that while the delivery and effectiveness of material aid is improving there remain serious gaps in on-the-ground protection combined with slow progress towards genuine conflict resolution and longer term rehabilitation. This situation is worsened by inconsistent funding and the politicisation of humanitarian aid that threatens to undermine the cooperation upon which it depends. By means of...

  8. CHAPTER TWO Displacement: Conceptual Difficulties
    (pp. 11-36)

    An extensive body of academic literature seeks to define, categorise and create new typologies of human displacement, forced migration and involuntary resettlement. Definitions are important because they underpin labels which have direct implications for policy and operational practice shaping the protection and assistance individuals receive in emergency, disaster, transition and post-emergency situations. There are clear limitations to the robustness of definitions which often over simplify and take highly complex issues out of historical and immediate human and cultural contexts. It is this complexity that makes arriving at broadly agreed definitions associated with displacement and forced migration problematic. In addition, states...

  9. CHAPTER THREE Counting the Displaced
    (pp. 37-58)

    Counting the number of people displaced for reasons other than conflict is not an easy task. Identifying, collecting and collating accurate data on the number of people uprooted, displaced, relocated or subsequently returned to their place of origin as a result of conflict and non-conflict situations, presents an enormous challenge. As discussed in Chapter Two, there remain disagreements over definitions of who should be counted as displaced and how, the types or categories of impact of displacement, and when that impact has ended. The situation is further complicated by the fact that on the ground and in organisations’ headquarters where...

  10. CHAPTER FOUR Governance and Management of Non-conflict Displacement
    (pp. 59-88)

    The discussion of definitions in Chapter Two and their importance illustrates the rigid categorisation that structures the international humanitarian system of protection for forced migrants. The system privileges those who cross international borders for whom there is a relatively robust regime defining legal entitlement and state responsibilities backed up by international structures; but it offers far less to those displaced within the borders of their own countries where the regime is far weaker. Other legal, policy and operational frameworks adopt their own categorisations of displacees, both international and internal, the result of which is a set of standards and practices...

  11. CHAPTER FIVE Displacement as an Economic and Development Dilemma
    (pp. 89-116)

    Chapter Four traced the evolution of the IDP Guiding Principles, policies and operational initiatives that emerge out of conflict situations, the refugee experience and humanitarian imperatives. In this chapter, and later in the Conclusion, direct parallels are drawn across the conflict and non-conflict domains with a focus on displacement occurring as a result of economic development. The internal thinking taking place in the UN humanitarian system through the rigours of the reform process are mirrored in the academic world where the benefits and drawbacks of stretching refugee studies to incorporate other displacement contexts is exercising the custodians of the discipline...

  12. CHAPTER SIX Environment and Climate Change
    (pp. 117-136)

    While there is no conclusive agreement on the current and eventual impacts of climate change, there would appear to be consensus among scientists and politicians alike that human activity has led to a rise in average global temperatures with the potential to affect the lives of a significant proportion of the world’s population. Concerns about the human impacts of climate change have coalesced around the likelihood of mass displacement and related migration occurring in those areas most severely affected by rising sea levels, adverse climatic events and more gradual environmental degradation. The IPCC has been noticeably cautious in its estimation...

  13. CHAPTER SEVEN Unstable Peace
    (pp. 137-158)

    This chapter is concerned with the political, development and humanitarian challenges displacement poses in situations of mainly localised, but occasionally generalised instability and hostility that would not be defined as armed conflict under international humanitarian law. Whilst, as we have previously discussed, there is no consensus on what constitutes armed conflict, the authors follow a recent ICRC (2008) position on ‘international armed conflict’ as existing whenever there is resort to armed force between two or more states; and ‘non-international armed conflict’ existing in protracted armed confrontations occurring between governmental armed forces and the forces of one or more armed groups,...

  14. CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusion – Displacement Challenges for the Twenty-first Century
    (pp. 159-178)

    This volume has examined the human, economic and political outcomes of non-conflict displacement occurring as a result of natural disasters, as part of the development process, and in situations of peace, hostility and instability that do not reach the threshold of armed conflict as recognised in international humanitarian law. It has reviewed national and international institutional, legal and policy responses to displacement and considered current reforms. It is in many respects through the observed outcomes – the effects – of non-conflict displacement, mediated increasingly through media coverage, that the causes of displacement are sought and culpability or responsibility is assigned....

  15. Notes on Authors
    (pp. 179-180)
  16. Bibliography
    (pp. 181-196)
  17. Index
    (pp. 197-200)