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Globalized Fatherhood

Globalized Fatherhood

Marcia C. Inhorn
Wendy Chavkin
José-Alberto Navarro
Copyright Date: 2015
Edition: 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 430
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  • Book Info
    Globalized Fatherhood
    Book Description:

    Using an entirely new conceptual vocabulary through which to understand men's experiences and expectations at the dawn of the twenty-first century, this path-breaking volume focuses on fatherhood around the globe, including transformations in fathering, fatherhood, and family life. It includes new work by anthropologists, sociologists, and cultural geographers, working in settings from Peru to India to Vietnam. Each chapter suggests that men are responding to globalizationas fathersin creative and unprecedented ways, not only in the West, but also in numerous global locations.

    eISBN: 978-1-78238-438-0
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vii)
  3. List of Tables and Figures
    (pp. viii-viii)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
    Marcia C. Inhorn, Wendy Chavkin and José-Alberto Navarro
  5. Introduction. Globalized Fatherhood: Emergent Forms and Possibilities in the New Millennium
    (pp. 1-28)
    Marcia C. Inhorn, Wendy Chavkin and José-Alberto Navarro

    One of the key insights of 1970s second-wave Western feminism was that paternal participation in childrearing was necessary for gender equity (Chodorow 1999). Yet, even today, there persists a widely held (although largely untested) assumption in feminist, social science, population policy, and lay circles that men remain disinterested and disengaged in matters of human reproduction, childrearing, and the intimate domains of fatherhood and family life.

    Is this true? Are men really so removed from the realms of reproduction and fatherhood? InReconceiving the Second Sex: Men, Masculinity, and Reproduction, Marcia C. Inhorn and a group of Danish colleagues (Inhorn et...

  6. Part I. Corporate Fatherhood

    • Chapter 1 The Corporate Father
      (pp. 31-52)
      Jude Browne

      What does a political commitment to gender equality mean in the context of fatherhood? In what ways should the state support or compel fathers so as to effect greater gender equality? If there is any consensus on these questions in the gender literature, then it is that existing family leave policy—even the most progressive—falls short of a satisfactory answer. Typically, this failure is understood either in economic terms—that policy provision is simply inadequate in scale—or in terms of individual preferences that should be encouraged to change. Indeed, both of these approaches are intended to incentivize men...

    • Chapter 2 Hiding Fatherhood in Corporate Japan
      (pp. 53-78)
      Scott North

      Theories of family change in industrial nations posit complex linkages between the market economy and the interpersonal emotional economy at home and at work (Chafetz 1996; Goode 1963; Hochschild and Machung 1989). Although most research has focused on motherhood, modernity’s undeniable transformative effects on twentieth-century fatherhood are equally significant (LaRossa 1997). Locally, family changes and gender roles are influenced by historically derived, durable, and more or less habitually deployed cultural strategies of social action (Swidler 1986). Normative practices in most societies limit fathers’ caregiving, but close examination reveals various innovations in fathers’ responses to the dual-career, postindustrial division of labor...

  7. Part II. Transnational Fatherhood

    • Chapter 3 Transnational Fathers, Good Providers, and the Silences of Adoption
      (pp. 81-102)
      Jessaca Leinaweaver

      Across generations and across cultures, the role of social father is often equated with that of economic provider. Father-as-provider is a familiar model, as Nick Townsend (1997: 77) shows in the U.S. context: for middle-class men in California, fatherhood involves providing economically for one’s family and owning a home in a good neighborhood, two features that are then reinterpreted as emotional closeness.¹ This model has also been identified as one shared by men and women in Spain (Luxán et al. 1999; Brandes 1975; Gilmore 1998) and in Peru (Fuller 2003). Feminist scholars have shown how this model is inadequate in...

    • Chapter 4 Long-Distance Fathers, Left-Behind Fathers, and Returnee Fathers: Changing Fathering Practices in Indonesia and the Philippines
      (pp. 103-126)
      Theodora Lam and Brenda S. A. Yeoh

      Increasingly used by many Southeast Asian families as a household livelihood improvement strategy, transnational labor migration bears unforeseen challenges and changes for families in the region. The complex transformations that families undergo when members live in considerably different and distant worlds have been progressively highlighted in the literature on migration and social reproduction over the past decade. We have gained insight into the challenges migrants face on their trajectories away from home, and more recently, also gleaned glimpses into the experiences of those members left behind. The growing scholarship clearly demonstrates that migration dynamics are often most keenly felt at...

  8. Part III. Primary Care Fatherhood

    • Chapter 5 When the Pillar of the Home is Shaking: Female Labor Migration and Stay-at-Home Fathers in Vietnam
      (pp. 129-151)
      Vu Thi Thao

      Since the Doi Moi economic reforms of the 1980s, the Vietnamese economy has transitioned from being centrally planned to market-oriented. Vietnam became increasingly integrated into the global economy when it joined the World Trade Organization in 2006, a development that created new employment opportunities in export-oriented manufacturing, trade, and services. However, these jobs are clustered in urban areas and favor women workers. Consequently, the flow of rural women migrants seeking jobs to urban areas is increasing rapidly (General Statistics Office 2010; Ha and Ha 2001; Jensen and Peppard 2003). According to 1989 and 1999 censuses, men predominate in population mobility,...

    • Chapter 6 On Fatherhood in a Conflict Zone: Gaza Fathers and Their Children’s Cancer Treatments
      (pp. 152-174)
      Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli, Yana Diamand and Maram Abu Yaman

      The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been a focus of international tension for decades. Men living in the region are often caught in dire circumstances that challenge various aspects of their masculinity, including fatherhood. In this chapter we probe the consequences of the international constellation on notions and practices of fatherhood. At the center of our attention are Gaza fathers who attend to their children as the children undergo cancer treatment in Israel. The situation is exceptional: Due to the movement restrictions that Israel imposes on Gaza residents and the uncertainty that accompanies every border crossing to Israel, patients from Gaza remain...

  9. Part IV. Clinical Fatherhood

    • Chapter 7 Enhancing Fathering Through Medical Research Participation in Mexico
      (pp. 177-196)
      Emily Wentzell

      Arturo,¹ a 50-year-old electronics repairman, told me that physical health was not his only motivation for joining the Cuernavaca, Mexico, arm of the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men, or HIM, study, a multinational, longitudinal study of human papillomavirus (HPV) occurrence. HPV is the world’s most common sexually transmitted infection (STI), and while usually asymptomatic, some strains of the virus can cause genital warts or cervical and other cancers (Clifford et al. 2005). In Mexico, where cervical cancer remains a leading cause of death despite a nearly 40-year-old national screening program (Lazcano-Ponce et al. 1999; Palacio-Mejía et al. 2009), educational and...

    • Chapter 8 The High-Tech Homunculus: New Science, Old Constructs
      (pp. 197-220)
      Linda G. Kahn and Wendy Chavkin

      Any discussion of fatherhood—globalized or otherwise—would be incomplete without considering the basics of human reproduction: biological fathers provide half of the DNA that becomes the template for their offspring. Typically, that genetic material is delivered via sexual intercourse, and there is often a relationship between the provider and recipient that includes a socially determined set of obligations and expectations. The inability to father a biological child interferes with that dynamic and is a source of profound shame in many cultures. Male infertility is a growing problem in certain parts of the world as a result of advancing paternal...

  10. Part V. Infertile Fatherhood

    • Chapter 9 Assumed, Promised, Forbidden: Infertility, IVF, and Fatherhood in Turkey
      (pp. 223-242)
      Zeynep B. Gürtin

      This chapter discusses the role and meanings of fatherhood in the lives of involuntarily childless Turkish men going through in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Although the IVF clinic may not seem like the most obvious place to search for fatherhood, it nevertheless provides a space in which fatherhood is a constant “absent presence”—whether in consultations with doctors, in the exacting work of embryologists, or in the co-constructed narratives of couples striving to conceive their longed-for children. Although cultural taboos and the materiality of the fertility treatment process marginalizes notions of male infertility and the affective responses of men to...

    • Chapter 10 New Arab Fatherhood: Male Infertility, Assisted Reproduction, and Emergent Masculinities
      (pp. 243-264)
      Marcia C. Inhorn

      Male infertility is one of the world’s best-kept secrets. Few people realize that male infertility contributes to more than half of all cases of childlessness worldwide (Greil et al. 2010; Vayena et al. 2002). In the Middle Eastern region, the rates of male infertility are even higher—generally contributing to 60 to 70 percent of all cases—with very severe forms that may be genetic in origin (Inhorn 2012; Inhorn et al. 2009).

      Since 2003, I have been studying male infertility in the Middle East, interviewing more than 330 men from a variety of Arab countries (including Lebanon, Syria, Palestine,...

  11. Part VI. Gay/Surrogate Fatherhood

    • Chapter 11 Relating across International Borders: Gay Men Forming Families through Overseas Surrogacy
      (pp. 267-290)
      Deborah Dempsey

      Since the early 2000s, it has been popular for Australian gay men to form families through commercial surrogacy arrangements in the United States, although commercial surrogacy is illegal throughout Australia (see Dempsey 2006; Millbank 2011; Murphy 2013; Tuazon-McCheyne 2010).¹ In the mid 2000s, India became a particularly attractive surrogacy destination due to the favorable legal climate for intended parents and the lower cost of clinical services (see Millbank 2011; Whittaker 2010). A survey commissioned by lobby group Surrogacy Australia in 2012 indicated that India had outstripped the United States in popularity as a surrogacy destination for gay men and heterosexual...

    • Chapter 12 Conceiving Fatherhood: Gay Men and Indian Surrogate Mothers
      (pp. 291-312)
      Sharmila Rudrappa

      For fathers, traditionally, caring for children has orbited around ideals of hegemonic masculinity, such as achievement in the labor market, financial security for the family, parental authority, and involvement with the extraordinary events of childhood, such as attendance at sports or performance events, rather than the everyday tasks of cooking dinner or doing laundry (Coltrane 1996; La Rossa 1997; Lewin 2009; Townsend 2002). Yet, this is not the case in a small but growing number of heteronormative families, and most certainly not in gay families, where two fathers take on both the routine and exceptional tasks involved in raising children...

  12. Part VII. Ambivalent Fatherhood

    • Chapter 13 Fatherhood, Companionate Marriage, and the Contradictions of Masculinity in Nigeria
      (pp. 315-335)
      Daniel Jordan Smith

      In an era of lower fertility, companionate marriage, and changing family structures, Igbo men in southeastern Nigeria are beginning to adopt new approaches to fatherhood. Men are more involved in the daily lives of their children than in the past. They help more with childcare, exhibit greater intimacy with their children, and generally treat them in a less authoritarian manner than fathers in the past. While many Igbo men participate in and support these changes, ambivalence and contradictions abound. For example, messages from ever more popular Pentecostal churches that exhort men to embrace monogamy and fidelity compete with male peer...

    • Chapter 14 The Four Faces of Iranian Fatherhood
      (pp. 336-356)
      Soraya Tremayne

      The impact of globalization on fatherhood in Iran can best be understood in the context of the major social and political changes that have taken place since the Islamic Revolution of 1979.¹ The establishment of an Islamic state initially meant the resurgence of conservative values and norms, which were undermined and threatened by the previous regime’s modernizing reforms. Such a revival and its associated practices became so prominent that they gave the outside world the impression that Iran was an insular and fanatical country. On one level, Iran became a closed society, protecting conservative and conformist values and practices and...

  13. Part VIII. Imperiled Fatherhood

    • Chapter 15 “Bare Sticks” and Other Dangers to the Social Body: Assembling Fatherhood in China
      (pp. 359-381)
      Susan Greenhalgh

      For a culture that loves numerology, the date 11/11/11—six lonely ones—was made in heaven. A major pop culture holiday, 11 November 2011, was billed as the biggestguanggun jie(“bare sticks” day) of the century. Created in the early 1990s by college students to mark the plight of men who cannot find a spouse (known in Chinese asguanggun, or bare branches, because they have not married and produced offshoots), the holiday was the occasion for aggressive marketing, online advertising of profiles, and the appearance of vertical “sticks” on the landscape of major cities around the country. In...

    • Chapter 16 Paternity Poisoned: The Impact of Gulf War Syndrome on Fatherhood
      (pp. 382-403)
      Susie Kilshaw

      During my research into Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), one Scottish veteran expressed concern about how the illness might impact his reproductive life: “We can’t have kids now, and I wonder if that is because of me. Before me [my wife] had a healthy pregnancy, no problems. And I had a child before [the war] who was perfectly healthy. [Kilshaw: Was there a concern when you tried to get pregnant?] Aye. Miscarried. We had fertility treatment. Sometimes it’s a relief because one of my friends, his child was born with webbed feet and webbed hands, another was born with heart problems,...

  14. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 404-410)
  15. Index
    (pp. 411-419)