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Protest Beyond Borders

Protest Beyond Borders: Contentious Politics in Europe since 1945

Hara Kouki
Eduardo Romanos
Copyright Date: 2011
Edition: NED - New edition, 1
Published by: Berghahn Books
Pages: 256
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  • Book Info
    Protest Beyond Borders
    Book Description:

    The protest movements that followed the Second World War have recently become the object of study for various disciplines; however, the exchange of ideas between research fields, and comparative research in general, is lacking. An international and interdisciplinary dialogue is vital to not only describe the similarities and differences between the single national movements but also to evaluate how they contributed to the formation and evolution of a transnational civil society in Europe. This volume undertakes this challenge as well as questions some major assumptions of post-1945 protest and social mobilization both in Western and Eastern Europe. Historians, political scientists, sociologists and media studies scholars come together and offer insights into social movement research beyond conventional repertoires of protest and strictly defined periods, borders and paradigms, offering new perspectives on past and present processes of social change of the contemporary world.

    eISBN: 978-1-84545-995-6
    Subjects: Political Science, History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
    Kathrin Fahlenbrach, Martin Klimke and Joachim Scharloth
  5. Transnational Approaches to Contentious Politics: An Introduction
    (pp. 1-12)
    Hara Kouki and Eduardo Romanos

    Emerging from an international workshop, this volume examines a variety of different aspects of social mobilization since 1945, while the contributors constitute an equally heterogeneous group of young political scientists and historians, anthropologists, as well as researchers on social movement and the media. Their research poses numerous questions covering a broad range of issues across time and space, looking retrospectively at global interactions during the Cold War, as well as looking forward at reconfigurations of protest politics in the twenty-first century, both in Western and Eastern Europe. Blurring chronological and geographical boundaries of study and merging strictly defined methods and...

  6. Part I. Transnational Dimensions of Protest in Cold War Europe

    • Chapter 1 Extraparliamentary Entanglements: Framing Peace in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1945–1974
      (pp. 15-31)
      Andrew Oppenheimer

      This chapter explores the role played by expressions of solidarity in the ethical and political economies of West German social movements.¹ Despite their prominence in postwar vocabularies of protest, expressions of solidarity have received little scholarly attention. What analysis there has been treats solidarity as a self-evident, stable term of analysis reflecting the common cause of activists internationally in supposedly related campaigns for liberation from structural forms of neocapitalist and neocolonial oppression.² Absent from this is any concern for the internal dynamics of these expressions—the claims they signify at given moments in time; the motivations that underlie them; and...

    • Chapter 2 The Prague Spring and the “Gypsy Question”: A Transnational Challenge to the Socialist State
      (pp. 32-48)
      Celia Donert

      Few episodes in the postwar history of Czechoslovakia have received greater attention than the Prague Spring, when reformers in the Czechoslovak Communist Party (KSČ) attempted to create a democratic socialism in the heart of the Soviet bloc, creating unprecedented opportunities for political liberalization, social mobilization, and internationalism in a Stalinist regime that had previously been one of the most conservative in Eastern Europe. The subsequent invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact troops contributed to the commemoration of the Prague Spring as a national rebellion against Soviet hegemony, a myth that Czech and Slovak historians have been laboring to confront since...

    • Chapter 3 Human Rights as a Transnational Vocabulary of Protest: Campaigning against the Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union
      (pp. 49-66)
      Hara Kouki

      In an article that appeared in an academic journal in February 2006 under the title “Human Rights Abuses in Mental Institutions Common Worldwide,” we read: “Institutional psychiatry as a major tool of political suppression … may no longer be the problem that it was in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, but violation of international human rights law continue unabated … in China, Turkey, Nicaragua or Latvia.” The “well-documented” story of psychiatric repression in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, when “a patient’s conviction that the state must be changed was seen as indicia of mental illness,”¹ serves nowadays...

  7. Part II. Contentious Politics in a New Era of Transnationalism

    • Chapter 4 Stairway to Heaven or Highway to Hell? Ambivalent Europeanization and Civil Society in Central and Eastern Europe
      (pp. 69-85)
      Aron Buzogány

      The coming together of Europe has multiplied both opportunities and constraints for societal actors from the new member states to pursue their interests within the multi-level settings of the European Union (EU). On the one hand, European integration has been seen as an essential factor affecting the structures, strategies, and visibility of these actors by opening new opportunity structures and providing supplementary access points that can be used in complementary ways to the pre-existing national ones. At the same time, however, this process is also creating new constraints for participation and collective mobilization and is seen to favor some societal...

    • Chapter 5 Communicating Dissent: Diversity of Expression in the Protest against the G8 Summit in Heiligendamm
      (pp. 86-102)
      Simon Teune

      Just as its forerunners were, the Group of Eight (G8) summit in Heiligendamm, Germany, was challenged by protests emerging from the global justice movements (GJMs). The images of protest were complementing and at times eclipsing the images of the official summit.¹ When we recall the events in June 2007, we think of colorful marches with thousands and tens of thousands of participants, clowns poking fun at the security forces, protesters in black disguises throwing stones, discussions at the alternative summit, or activists roaming the fields near Heiligendamm to blockade the access to the venue.

      Contending that the demonstrations in Heiligendamm...

    • Chapter 6 Digitalized Anti-Corporate Campaigns: Toward a New Era of Transnational Protest?
      (pp. 103-122)
      Johanna Niesyto

      As mass media-communicated corporate public relations and product advertising form conditions for the distribution of product and corporate images, the transformation into a multimedia society and, in particular, the introduction and widespread appropriation of the Internet, enable the sociotechnical possibility of converting political protest in favor of anti-corporate campaigns using a consumerist repertoire. Appealing to citizens as “netizen consumers” creates new options for a politicization of market sphere-related activities.¹ Protest actors promoting consumer resistance use the Internet as a site of contestation: they use digital communication tools to deconstruct brand images and re-contextualize them against the backdrop of global justice....

  8. Part III. Broadening Theoretical Approaches

    • Chapter 7 From “British Rights for British Citizens” to “British Out”: Dynamic Social Movement Development in the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Movement, 1960s to 1972
      (pp. 125-139)
      Lorenzo Bosi

      The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Movement (hereafter, CRM) between the 1960s and early 1970s shifted from an inclusive, reformist movement to an exclusivist, ethnonationalist one.* What is the explanation for such a significant transformation? This chapter seeks to answer the question by looking at the complex interactions of political opportunities/threats and the internal dynamics and competitiveness between different organizations and groups within the movement. What I am suggesting in this work is that much of the process of social movement development is understandable only by looking at the broader political environment as well as by looking within the movement itself....

    • Chapter 8 Anarchism, Franco’s Dictatorship, and Postwar Europe: High-Risk Mobilization and Ideological Change
      (pp. 140-157)
      Eduardo Romanos

      Historians have traditionally considered Spanish anarchism to be the most successful variant of the international libertarian movement.¹ Most of them also believe that the terminal point of that variant came soon after the end of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and Franco’s dictatorship (1939–1975) came to power.² This chapter agrees with the first assumption, but considers the second to be open to question. Spanish anarchism indeed succeeded in creating a specific political culture and became a major political force in the first decades of the twentieth century. According to established opinion, harsh repression, familial rivalries, and the inability...

    • Chapter 9 Organizational Communication of Intermediaries in Flux: An Analytical Framework
      (pp. 158-174)
      Dominik Lachenmeier

      Until recently, social scientists who studied formal organizations and social scientists who studied social movements had little to do with each other. But as Gerald F. Davis and his co-authors observe “developments in the wider society and in scholarship have made it clear that the time is ripe to break down the barriers between these two fields.”¹ Following this ambition, this chapter focuses on so-called “intermediary organizations,” such as political parties, associations or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which often have their historical roots in social movements.

      Social movements are networks of persons, groups, and organizations that want to induce, stop or...

  9. Part IV. Outlook for Research

    • Chapter 10 The Role of Dissident-Intellectuals in the Formation of Civil Society in (Post-)Communist East-Central Europe
      (pp. 177-187)
      Mariya Ivancheva

      This chapter is not going to answer the question ofwhatwas the role of intellectuals in the formation, transformation, or deformation of civil society in East-Central Europe in the transition from communism to post-communism. Instead, by avoiding unidirectional answers, I introduce the multiplicity of arguments voiced in the debate. I demonstrate how it split along the lines of civil society theory and practice, of pre– and post–1989 developments of civic activism in the region, and of divergent disciplinary approaches to the problem. On this basis, I suggest that the analysis of civil society as a frame of protest...

    • Chapter 11 Globalization and the Transformation of National Protest Politics: An Appetizer
      (pp. 188-199)
      Swen Hutter

      Is globalization leading to a reconfiguration of political cleavage structures and mobilization in Western Europe at the beginning of the twenty-first century? And what are the specific consequences regarding protest politics? The following chapter presents key ideas of an ongoing research project* that puts globalization in a Rokkanean perspective.¹ It conceives the contemporary opening up of boundaries as a new critical juncture, which induces new structural cleavages, both within and between nation-states.² Using this perspective, the project tries to find novel answers to the transformation of national electoral and protest politics in a globalizing world.

      Since globalization is a highly...

  10. Afterword. Social Movement Studies and Transnationalization: An Uneasy Relation or a Happy Start? An Afterword
    (pp. 200-206)
    Donatella della Porta

    Social movement studies, as other areas of the social sciences, have been late to address phenomena of transnationalization, and are still in search of adequate methods, concepts, and theories to address them.* There are several reasons for this.

    First, most scholarship has, time and again, confirmed the relevant role that national political opportunities play in influencing social movement mobilization, its dimension, duration, and forms. The modern repertoire of protest has emerged with the creation of the nation-state¹ and social movements have played an important role in the development of (national) citizenship rights.² So, it is at the national level that...

  11. Bibliography
    (pp. 207-239)
  12. Notes on Contributors
    (pp. 240-242)
  13. Index
    (pp. 243-254)