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Exempli Gratia

Exempli Gratia: Sagalassos, Marc Waelkens and Interdisciplinary Archaeology

Edited by Jeroen Poblome
Copyright Date: 2013
Published by: Leuven University Press
Pages: 222
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  • Book Info
    Exempli Gratia
    Book Description:

    The Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project has made interdisciplinary practices part of its scientific strategy from the very beginning. The project is internationally acknowledged for important achievements in this respect. Aspects of its approach to ancient Sagalassos can be considered ground-breaking for the archaeology of Anatolia and the wider fields of classical and Roman archaeology. Now that its first project director, Professor Marc Waelkens - University of Leuven -, is at the stage of shifting practices, from an active academic career to an active academic retirement, this volume represents an excellent opportunity to reflect on the wider impact of the Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project. The contributors to the honorific publication build on the methods and practices of interdisciplinary archaeology from a wide variety of angles, in order to highlight the crucial role of interdisciplinary research for creating progress in the interpretation of the human past or nurture developments in their own disciplines. In particular, the contributors consider how the parcours of the Sagalassos Project helped to pave their ways. Contributors are international authorities in the field of Anatolian and classical archaeology, bio-archaeology, geo-archaeology, history and cultural heritage.

    eISBN: 978-94-6166-140-1
    Subjects: Archaeology, History

Table of Contents

  1. Exempli gratia Sagalassos, Marc Waelkens and Interdisciplinary Archaeology Editorial Note
    (pp. 21-26)
    Jeroen Poblome

    As part of his tour of duty as governor of the Black Sea province of Cappadocia appointed in 131 AD, Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon visited Trapezus (present-day Trabzon) and found a local sanctuary overlooking the Black Sea in an unworthy condition properly to bestow honour upon his imperial overlord, Hadrian. The statuary in particular, including an effigy of the emperor, seemingly did not generate much awe and respect for this great and widely travelled statesman. Arrian duly reported this condition to Hadrian in hisPeriplus(see quotation), reminded the emperor of his previous visit to Trapezus and the sanctuary, and...

  2. Two Decades of Anastylosis Experience at Sagalassos
    (pp. 27-42)
    Ebru Torun and Semih Ercan

    The last two decades saw the start and growth of the ‘Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project’, one of the first interdisciplinary classical excavations in Turkey. The Sagalassos Project emerged as a spin-off of the Pisidia Survey in 1990, and was conceived from the start to evaluate all feasible data that can be gathered through survey and excavations, in collaboration with other related disciplines¹. The site and the territory of ancient Sagalassos became the focus of intensive research, and at present the monumental centre of the town is for the large part unearthed, while four anastylosis projects and a shelter structure are...

  3. Die Dedikation des Apollo Klarios unter Proculus, legatus Augusti pro praetore Lyciae-Pamphyliae unter Antoninus Pius
    (pp. 43-50)
    Werner Eck

    Römische Provinzen waren relativ stabile Strukturelemente des römischen Reiches, die in ihrem Umfang wesentlich durch die ihr zugehörigen Selbstverwaltungseinheiten definiert waren, nicht durch konkrete Grenzen der Provinz. Nur in seltenen Fällen sind wirklich Provinzgrenzen eigens fixiert worden, während das Territorium von Gemeinden öfter solcher Abgrenzungen bedurfte. Provinzen blieben oft über Jahrhunderte unverändert in ihrer Ausdehnung. Nur gelegentlich wurden einzelne Selbstverwaltungseinheiten oder Städte aus einer Provinz herausgenommen und einer anderen zugewiesen. In der konkreten administrativen Praxis des Reiches wird dann die Liste aller Selbstverwaltungs einheiten, die zur Provinz eines Statthalters gehörten, erweitert worden sein.

    Eine der Städte, deren Zugehörigkeit zu einer...

  4. Two Decennia of Faunal Analysis at Sagalassos
    (pp. 51-58)
    Wim Van Neer and Bea De Cupere

    Faunal analysis at Sagalassos began in 1991 with a two week research stay of the first author, who during that excavation season analysed a few boxes of hand collected animal bones that had been retrieved the previous year. Since then, more than 20 additional excavation campaigns have taken place during which archaeozoologists were always part of the team. In total, faunal specialists have been present on site during a total of about 250 weeks, and the amount of material grew spectacularly: it is now taking up the space of almost two storage containers. In this contribution we will focus on...

  5. Holistic Archaeology and Archaeological Science at Sagalassos: Contributions to a Discipline
    (pp. 59-70)
    Patrick Degryse

    Within the framework of the excavations and surveys in and around the ancient city of Sagalassos (SW Turkey) and its 1,200 km² large territory, much geo- and bioarchaeological or archaeometrical research has been performed. This work has been carried out since 1986 and is still ongoing, and the endeavour can best be placed under the denominator of the ‘archaeological sciences’, though the terms ‘interdisciplinary archaeology’ or ‘holistic archaeology’ have been used too to refer to this type of research.

    ‘Holistic archaeology’ has been defined as an inclusive approach to archaeology, comprising all aspects of human societies, from ecology and economy, to...

  6. The Relation between Archaeology and Geography in Studying Past Human-environment Interactions: Is Interdisciplinary Geoarchaeology the Answer?
    (pp. 71-80)
    Gert Verstraeten

    July, 1995. It is nearly two hours since we left Antalya in a chartered bus. Most of the drive is through a narrow valley with steep, forested limestone slopes. Then the valley opens and we enter the small rural village of Ağlasun. The bus finds its way through a maze of small, unpaved streets winding between old houses. We pass a tea house where at least seven local men are sitting side by side, nipping from their tea cup, and staring at us. A few minutes later the bus stops in front of a large white house, near the edge...

  7. Money Makes Pottery Go Round
    (pp. 81-96)
    Jeroen Poblome

    I do not drink a lot of alcohol. A coolEfesat the end of a campaign working day or a bottle ofCôte de Beaunein the company of friends go a long way. The most savoured moments are enlightened by a top-range single malt whisky, however, and there is a good reason for that. Until I was 30 the most important decisions in life were taken over a glass or two (or more) in the company of my late father, Noel Poblome. Things were no different one spring evening in 1991. While doing my Belgian army service upon...

  8. Sagalassos and the Pisidia Survey Project: In Search of Pisidia’s History
    (pp. 97-118)
    Stephen Mitchell and Lutgarde Vandeput

    Sagalassos is a mountain city at the heart of a highland region, Pisidia (Fig. 1). Modern understanding of the history, culture and environment of this region has been transformed in the last thirty years, thanks to the Sagalassos excavations and to regional survey work which began in the early 1980s.¹ Marc Waelkens has been at the heart of the Pisidian Survey project since its inception. When Stephen Mitchell submitted an application to survey Pisidian Antioch in 1982, his was the first name on the team list. Waelkens’ work on the two temples, the Hellenistic peristyle building dedicated to Mên Askaênos...

  9. Interdisciplinarity in Archaeology and the Impact of Sagalassos on the Komana Research Project
    (pp. 119-126)
    Deniz Burcu Erciyas

    When I went to Sagalassos for the first time in 1991, I was only seventeen and it was the second year of the excavations. I spent eight excavation seasons at Sagalassos, wrote a Master’s thesis on the NorthwestHeroonthere and gained experience not only in archaeology but also in life.¹ The time I had at Sagalassos has been precious and I owe a lot to Professsor Marc Waelkens for qualities I acquired which would have been impossible elsewhere. I consider Professor Waelkens my mentor and, therefore, decided to compose a more personal piece in which I wish to take...

  10. The Contribution of Regional Surface Survey to Byzantine Landscape History in Greece
    (pp. 127-140)
    John Bintliff

    Marc’s achievement in Classical Archaeology in general and in Pisidia in particular has been immense, a commitment of energy and vision that very few of his contemporaries, maybe none, has equalled. The flow of papers by himself and with his colleagues and students has appeared to be a never-ending stream of new information on a wide range of fields, from environmental archaeology, materials science, through ceramics and settlement analysis into his own original field of urban architecture.

    This paper will only deal with one small and recent field in his lifetime interests, that of regional surface survey, and I want...

  11. A First Characterization of a New Bigio Antico Marble From A Hitherto Unknown Ancient Quarry At Aghios Petros (Tripolis-Peloponnesus)
    (pp. 141-152)
    Lorenzo Lazzarini

    The archaeological and archaeometric studies of the marbles and stones used in antiquity as building and/or decorative materials have only in very recent decades reached the level of quality and quantity this subject deserves¹. Indeed, our knowledge of several lithotypes, such as alabasters, rare breccias and magmatites/metamorphites, is still very limited. This is also true for some relatively more common materials such as the so-calledneri antichi(antique blacks), a general denomination includinggrey-black(metamorphic) marbles that are more specifically identified as bigi antichi (literally antique grays), and similarly coloured (sedimentary) limestones, calledbigi morati(literally stones with the colour...

  12. Segmented Mills in Classical Antiquity
    (pp. 153-164)
    David Peacock

    I first encountered Marc Waelkens a quarter of a century ago when he was involved in organising a NATO sponsored conference on marble in ancient Greece and Rome, held at Il Ciocco, near Lucca, Italy, in 1988. Despite his being unable to attend in person, this meeting, like so many of Marc’s ventures, proved to be a catalyst and from it arose the thriving Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity (ASMOSIA) which continues and expands through its biennial international conferences. At the time Marc was planning a new enterprise – the excavation of Sagalassos, a Roman...

  13. Interdisciplinary Non-invasive Survey Approaches to Ancient Towns: Some Applications and Visualisations from the Roman West
    (pp. 165-183)
    Frank Vermeulen

    Non-invasive field survey has been making a major contribution to our understanding of the rural landscapes of the Mediterranean for nearly forty years¹. During that time the techniques used to map ancient settlement patterns have grown in sophistication from being a process of simply identifying sites in the landscape, to one which provided nuanced understandings of their layouts, chronologies and contexts. The 1980s and 1990s witnessed a boom in the number of regional survey projects, which developed increasingly intensive and refined methodologies. The introduction of desktop computers, GIS software and, more recently, mobile technologies (e.g. GPS receivers) contributed to increasingly...

  14. La nouvelle identité urbaine au Ve siècle dans le Nord de la Gaule
    (pp. 185-200)
    Raymond Brulet

    Parétapes successives, la ville de l’Antiquité tardive se forge une identité nouvelle au Vesiècle après J.-C., après avoir connu un grand nombre de vicissitudes. D’une manière générale, et en particulier pour l’Occident romain, l’historiographie montre qu’elles sont parfois considérées sous un angle péjoratif (décadence¹, crise², déclin³, chute et fin⁴, dissolution⁵, hiatus⁶) ou sous un point de vue évolutif qui ne nie naturellement pas le déclin (changement et mutation⁷, renaissance). On garde aussi à l’esprit le concept de continuité⁹ et, d’ailleurs, les notions de transformation et de déclin ne sont pas incompatibles comme l’a admis J.H.W.G. Liebeschuetz¹⁰. Au total, beaucoup de...

  15. Postscript
    (pp. 201-218)
    Wolfgang Radt

    Als Marc Waelkens in den späten 1980er Jahren anfing in Sagalassos zu arbeiten gab es noch keine klassisch-archäologische Grabung in der Türkei, die auch nur entfernt dem ähnelte, was Marc danach in Sagalassos geschaffen hat.

    Viele Klassische Grabungen waren noch auf dem Stand, den die Tradition vorgab: man grub aus, um ein Gebäude oder ein ganzes Stadtviertel freizulegen und um dort mög lichst schöne und interessante Funde zu machen. Die Tradition der Klassischen Archäo logie war, zumindest auf einigen deutschen Grabungen, immer noch geprägt von der rein kunstgeschichtlichen Ausrichtung dieses Faches: Klassische Archäologie als Kunstgeschichte der Antike. Außerdem waren die...