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From Arrival to Incorporation

From Arrival to Incorporation: Migrants to the U.S. in a Global Era

Elliott R. Barkan
Hasia Diner
Alan M. Kraut
Copyright Date: 2008
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 310
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  • Book Info
    From Arrival to Incorporation
    Book Description:

    The United States is once again in the midst of a peak period of immigration. By 2005, more than 35 million legal and illegal migrants were present in the United States. At different rates and with differing degrees of difficulty, a great many will be incorporated into American society and culture.Leading immigration experts in history, sociology, anthropology, economics, and political science here offer multiethnic and multidisciplinary perspectives on the challenges confronting immigrants adapting to a new society. How will these recent arrivals become Americans? Does the journey to the U.S. demand abandoning the past? How is the United States changing even as it requires change from those who come here?Broad thematic essays are coupled with case studies and concluding essays analyzing contemporary issues facing Muslim newcomers in the wake of 9/11. Together, they offer a vibrant portrait of America's new populations today.Contributors: Anny Bakalian, Elliott Barkan, Mehdi Bozorgmehr, Caroline Brettell, Barry R. Chiswick, Hasia Diner, Roland L. Guyotte, Gary Gerstle, David W. Haines, Alan M. Kraut, Xiyuan Li, Timothy J. Meagher, Paul Miller, Barbara M. Posadas, Paul Spickard, Roger Waldinger, Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield, and Min Zhou.

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-8996-4
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 1-38)
    Elliott R. Barkan, Hasia Diner and Alan M. Kraut

    “Si, se puede!” (Yes, we can!), chanted the hundreds of thousands of immigrants and their native–born supporters who marched through American cities and in front of the Capitol in Washington, D.C., in the spring of 2006. Appropriating the chant once popularized by protesting farm-workers, the marchers—many of them Latino but Asians and Europeans as well—campaigned for a reformed immigration policy that would allow undocumented newcomers to remain in the United States and to one day become citizens. A sea of American flags left the clear impression that those who had come, however they had gotten to the...

  5. PART I Thematic Approaches to Immigration and Incorporation

    • Chapter 1 America and Refugees: Morality, Rationality, and Expedience, 1939–2005
      (pp. 41-59)
      David W. Haines

      The American experience with refugees over the past sixty years has ranged from acceptance to rejection, from well–wrought program efforts to botched policy decisions, from humanitarian concerns to crass politics. The U.S. Department of State has been both the fabricator of paper walls to exclude refugees and the locus of intense efforts to move them quickly into the United States. Religious and secular voluntary agencies have been lauded for their efforts on behalf of refugees and chided for providing inconsistent services. Refugees themselves have been characterized as true American success stories and criticized as overly dependent on public welfare....

    • Chapter 2 Migration, Immigration, and Naturalization in America
      (pp. 60-79)
      Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield

      Early studies on the great European immigration were soon followed by others pointing to differences by country of origin in the percentage of immigrants who made the transition from permanent residency to naturalized citizenship. Reflecting debates about the mixture of immigrants with respect to race and ethnicity, these studies noted that some immigrant groups from countries of southern and eastern Europe were lagging behind others on several measures of socioeconomic success, including naturalization. Many immigrants simply did not stay permanently. Wage convergence between Europe and America led to a lowering of emigration from Europe before World War I, and this...

    • Chapter 3 Immigrant Enclaves, Ethnic Goods, and the Adjustment Process
      (pp. 80-93)
      Barry R. Chiswick and Paul W. Miller

      Why do immigrants tend to live clustered together in immigrant concentrations, to be referred to here as immigrant “enclaves”? Why don’t they distribute themselves across a destination country in the same manner as the native-born population? Immigrant enclaves appear to be a characteristic of the foreign born in the United States and other immigrant-receiving countries, not only today but also in earlier time periods.¹

      This essay will focus on the contemporary United States. It will demonstrate the existence of immigrant concentrations or enclaves. It will then introduce the concept of “ethnic goods” as a factor explaining these enclaves and, finally,...

    • Chapter 4 Asian Americans, Religion, and Race
      (pp. 94-118)
      Paul Spickard

      There are two things we don’t talk about much in U.S. immigration history: religion and race. They are crucial to an understanding of how immigrants of color have been incorporated into American society over the last couple of centuries and how they have not. Both religious and racial limits have been placed on the opportunities of non–European immigrants to become full members of U.S. society, limits that have not been placed on immigrants from Europe. For immigrants of color from Asia, racial and religious limits have interacted to reinforce each other, in ways that will be explored in the...

  6. PART II Case Studies

    • Chapter 5 “Meet Me at the Chat/Chaat Corner”: The Embeddedness of Immigrant Entrepreneurs
      (pp. 121-142)
      Caroline B. Brettell

      In the summer of 1972 I was conducting field research on Portuguese immigrants in the city of Toronto, Canada. At that time, many recently arrived Portuguese were living in the Kensington Market area, an urban neighborhood of modest and low-cost housing in downtown Toronto that had traditionally been a receiving area for immigrants. On Augusta Street, at the heart of this neighborhood, produce stalls, bakeries, fish markets, and restaurants catering to a Portuguese clientele, but also in some cases to a broader “Canadian” clientele, lined the streets. On other streets, one could find a Portuguese-language bookstore, several Portuguese travel agencies,...

    • Chapter 6 Filipino Families in the Land of Lincoln: Immigrant Incorporation in Springfield, Illinois, since 1965
      (pp. 143-162)
      Barbara M. Posadas and Roland L. Guyotte

      The Filipino American community in the Land of Lincoln—Springfield, Illinois, and nearby cities—provides a site for examining the experiences of post–1965 immigrants in a setting in which they arenota substantial “minority” population. It underscores the diversity of Filipino immigrants in the United States.¹ It also offers an opportunity to explore the ways in which gender has shaped the lives of female immigrants in their adopted home over the course of a generation. Immigrant family, organizational, and religious ties emerged and developed among a fairly stable population that included professionals, practicing physicians, and salaried employees of...

    • Chapter 7 Ethnic–Language Maintenance and Social Mobility: A Historical Look at the Development of Chinese Schools in the United States
      (pp. 163-184)
      Min Zhou and Xiyuan Li

      Getting resettled in a new country, immigrants are often required to learn the host language, which often differs from that of their own, and to eventually assimilate into the host society. The U.S. history of immigrant adaptation has shown a consistent trend of language shift from the ethnic to the dominant language intergenerationally. As predicted by the Fishman model, the first generation speaks the ethnic language at home, the second generation speaks the ethnic language at home but the dominant language in public, and the third generation speaks the dominant language both at home and in public.¹ In the United...

    • Chapter 8 The Importance of Being Italian: Italian Americans in American Popular Culture, 1960s to 1990s
      (pp. 185-214)
      Timothy J. Meagher

      As the final editing of the movieThe Godfatherwound down in the winter of 1971–72 , Francis Ford Coppola, the film’s young director, was nervous. He worried that he had taken an “exciting . . . novel” and “transformed it into a dark, ponderous, boring movie.” Paramount Studios, which had hired Coppola, had been unsure of the movie’s potential as well. Although the dark novel by Mario Puzo, the basis for the movie, had been wildly popular, some in the studio had wanted to play it safe with “ a low budget production.”The Godfatheropened on March...

  7. PART III Contemporary Immigration and Incorporation

    • Chapter 9 The Immigrant as Threat to American Security: A Historical Perspective
      (pp. 217-245)
      Gary Gerstle

      For most of its history, America has been remarkably open to immigrants from most parts of the world. So many have come—more than fifty million in the last 120 years alone—that the very history of America is incomprehensible apart from a consideration of who these immigrants were and what manner of life they made in their new home. Oscar Handlin, a pioneer in the field of immigration history, captured this truth in his Pulitzer Prize–winning book,The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations That Made the American People.“Once I thought to write a history...

    • Chapter 10 Post–9/11 Government Initiatives in Comparative and Historical Perspectives
      (pp. 246-266)
      Mehdi Bozorgmehr and Anny Bakalian

      On several occasions, the U.S. government has targeted immigrant and ethnic groups (e.g., German Americans during World War I and Japanese Americans during World War II) when their country of origin has waged war on America. During the Palmer Raids and the Red Scare against the Bolshevik threat between 1919 and 1920 , the communists were targeted by the government. Furthermore, Iranian students were subjected to deportation if found out of legal status during the “Iran Hostage Crisis” in 1979–81. President Bush declared the “Attacks on America” as an act of war against the United States, and his administration...

    • Chapter 11 Immigrant “Transnationalism” and the Presence of the Past
      (pp. 267-286)
      Roger Waldinger

      At the turn of the twenty–first century, the view that nation–state and society normally converge has waned. Instead, “globalization” is the order of the day, with international migration bringing the alien “other” from Third World to First, and worldwide trade and communications amplifying and accelerating the feedbacks traveling in the opposite direction. Consequently, social scientists are looking for new ways to think about the connections between “here” and “there,” as evidenced by the interest in the many things called “transnational.” The excitement is particularly great among those studying international migration: observing that migration produces a plethora of connections...

  8. About the Contributors
    (pp. 287-290)
  9. Index
    (pp. 291-310)