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New York and Amsterdam

New York and Amsterdam: Immigration and the New Urban Landscape

Nancy Foner
Jan Rath
Jan Willem Duyvendak
Rogier van Reekum
Copyright Date: 2014
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 336
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt9qff06
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  • Book Info
    New York and Amsterdam
    Book Description:

    Immigration is dramatically changing major cities throughout the world. Nowhere is this more so than in New York City and Amsterdam, which, after decades of large-scale immigration, now have populations that are more than a third foreign-born. These cities have had to deal with the challenge of incorporating hundreds of thousands of immigrants whose cultures, languages, religions, and racial backgrounds differ dramatically from those of many long-established residents.New York and Amsterdambrings together a distinguished and interdisciplinary group of American and Dutch scholars to examine and compare the impact of immigration on two of the world's largest urban centers.The original essays in this volume discuss how immigration has affected social, political, and economic structures, cultural patterns, and intergroup relations in the two cities, investigating how the particular, and changing, urban contexts of New York City and Amsterdam have shaped immigrant and second generation experiences. Despite many parallels between New York and Amsterdam, the differences stand out, and juxtaposing essays on immigration in the two cities helps to illuminate the essential issues that today's immigrants and their children confront. Organized around five main themes, this bookoffers an in-depth view of the impact of immigration as it affects particular places, with specific histories, institutions, and immigrant populations.New York and Amsterdamprofoundly contributes to our broader understanding of the transformations wrought by immigration and the dynamics of urban change, providing new insights into how - and why - immigration's effects differ on the two sides of the Atlantic. Nancy Foner is Distinguished Professor of Sociology at Hunter College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Jan Rath is Professor of Sociology and Chair of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Amsterdam. Jan WillemDuyvendak is Professor of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam. Rogier van Reekum is Ph.D. candidate at the University of Amsterdam.

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-3822-1
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Introduction: New York and Amsterdam: Immigration and the New Urban Landscape
    (pp. 1-22)
    JAN RATH, NANCY FONER, JAN WILLEM DUYVENDAK and ROGIER VAN REEKUM

    Immigration is dramatically changing major cities throughout the world. Nowhere is this more true than in Amsterdam and New York City, which, after decades of large-scale immigration, now have populations that are about a third foreign born. Amsterdam and New York City have had to deal with incorporating hundreds of thousands of immigrants whose ethnic, racial, and national backgrounds differ from those of many long-established residents, and who display a variety of different languages, religions, cultures, and lifestyles. How have the specific urban contexts of Amsterdam and New York shaped the fates of these newcomers? And—conversely—how has the...

  5. PART I: HOW HAS THE IMMIGRANT PAST SHAPED THE IMMIGRANT PRESENT IN NEW YORK CITY AND AMSTERDAM?

    • [PART I: Introduction]
      (pp. 23-28)

      Historians have related the past to the present in numerous ways, the most familiar of which may be Hegel’s vision that the present is a necessary outcome of the past. InThe Poverty of Historicism(1957), Karl Popper attacked this teleological vision as the core of totalitarian ideologies that claim that the realization of their (communist or fascist) ideas is part of a grand historical plan. The Hegelian idea of the present as the inevitable outcome of an unfolding history has few adherents today. This of course does not mean that the present is unrelated to the past. Path-dependency is...

    • 1 Immigration History and the Remaking of New York
      (pp. 29-51)
      NANCY FONER

      New York is America’s quintessential immigrant city. It has long been a major gateway for the nation’s new arrivals and is a leading receiving center today. It is fitting that the two most powerful symbols of immigration in the United States—the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island— stand in New York City’s harbor. Millions of southern and eastern European immigrants passed through Ellis Island’s halls a hundred years ago, and many remained in New York. In 1910, 41 percent of the city’s residents were foreign born. In 2010, after more than four decades of heavy immigration, the proportion of...

    • 2 To Amsterdam: Migrations Past and Present
      (pp. 52-82)
      LEO LUCASSEN

      One of the classic pitfalls of the historical discipline is the temptation to see the present as the inevitable outcome of developments in the past.¹ Professional historians are often highly critical of such a simplistic teleological path dependency reasoning, but in practice it is not so easy to avoid—not in the least because therearereal path dependencies and the past thereforedoesmatter for the present. The question is how does the past matter, to what extent, and under what conditions. As I will argue in this chapter, these issues are fundamental when reflecting on the influence of...

  6. PART II: WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES THE URBAN ECONOMY MAKE TO IMMIGRANT INCORPORATION?

    • [PART II: Introduction]
      (pp. 83-88)

      The spatial concentration of economic activities and the concomitant proliferation of economic opportunities have always encouraged individuals to gravitate to urban environments. The development of Amsterdam and New York as diverse and economically powerful world cities and immigrant meccas is evidently no exception. Both cities emerged at sites where (international) water ways and country roads meet. And both have become catchment areas for individuals looking for new opportunities. These individuals have indeed propelled further developments, economic and otherwise. Savvy entrepreneurship, hard—often unremitting—labor, and confidence strengthened the strategic exploitation of their favorable geographical locations. Amsterdam and New York started...

    • 3 Immigrants in New York City’s Economy: A Portrait in Full Living Color
      (pp. 89-106)
      DAVID DYSSEGAARD KALLICK

      New York is in a period of immigration as extensive as at any time in its long history as a hub of international migration. As of 2009, three million immigrants lived in New York City, comprising 36 percent of the population—making immigration comparable to the twentieth-century peak in 1910, when two million immigrants made up 41 percent of the city’s population.¹ Today, immigrants are central to every aspect of city life, certainly including the economy: immigrants’ share of total economic output is nearly exactly equivalent to their share of the population (Fiscal Policy Institute 2007).

      Over the last few...

    • 4 From Amsterdamned to I Amsterdam: The Amsterdam Economy and Its Impact on the Labor Market Position of Migrants, 1980–2010
      (pp. 107-132)
      ROBERT C. KLOOSTERMAN

      Only a little more than two decades ago, Amsterdam was a “city in crisis” (Terhorst and Van de Ven 2003: 95). Economic prospects looked bleak, parts of the infrastructure were deteriorating, crime was rising, and middle-class families left the city in droves for the green suburbs. These middle-class families were partly replaced by people from non-Western countries such as Turkey, Morocco, and Suriname but this inflow could not stem the tide and the city’s population declined from 869,000 inhabitants in 1960 to 676,000 in 1984 (Bosscher 2007c: 541). Overall unemployment was very high, much higher than the national average and...

  7. PART III: IS ISLAM IN AMSTERDAM LIKE RACE IN NEW YORK CITY?

    • [PART III: Introduction]
      (pp. 133-142)

      In Amsterdam, Islam is a major barrier facing immigrants; in New York City, race operates in a similar fashion. Yet if Islam in Amsterdam is like race in New York City in many ways, there are also profound differences between the two urban contexts.

      That immigrants in New York are often seen through the prism of race is not surprising given the history of racial inequality in the United States and the demographics of the city. Race, following Foner and Fredrickson, refers to socially significant differences between human groups or communities differing in visible physical characteristics or putative ancestry that...

    • 5 Nativism, Racism, and Immigration in New York City
      (pp. 143-169)
      MARY C. WATERS

      When immigrants enter a new society the history and institutions of that society shape the opportunities and obstacles they will encounter. Most comparisons of the integration of immigrants in Europe and the U.S. begin with an acknowledgement of that fact. The United States’ long history of immigration is often held up as a resource that provides a model or pathway for current immigrants to follow, one that is lacking in European countries. On the other hand, America’s dark history of slavery and racism is seen as a roadblock or barrier to incorporation for today’s nonwhite immigrants and their children.

      In...

    • 6 Governing through Religion in Amsterdam: The Stigmatization of Ethnic Cultures and the Uses of Islam
      (pp. 170-194)
      JUSTUS UITERMARK, JAN WILLEM DUYVENDAK and JAN RATH

      Islam is being transformed in each and every corner of the world, and Europe is definitely no exception.¹ Muslims in Europe—thedramatis personaeof this religion—have demonstrated a wide and continuously changing variety of affiliations to Islam. As the overwhelming majority of the 13–15 million Muslims living in Western Europe are predominantly first- and second-generation immigrants,² the transformation of this religion cannot be understood without also addressing the process of integration in the receiving society. As first- or second-generation immigrants, European Muslims find themselves in an environment in which the expression of their faith is not a...

  8. PART IV: HOW ARE IMMIGRANTS ENTERING THE PRECINCTS OF POWER IN NEW YORK CITY AND AMSTERDAM?

    • [PART IV: Introduction]
      (pp. 195-202)

      Politics are a central element in the urban landscape. The huge influx of immigrants has inevitably changed political dynamics in Amsterdam and New York City, bringing hundreds of thousands of new voters onto the political scene. At the same time, the way immigrants have entered the precincts of power has been shaped by the structure of political arrangements and the nature of the political culture in each city as well as characteristics of the immigrant groups themselves.

      The focus of the two chapters in this section is on the ability of people of immigrant origin to obtain official political positions...

    • 7 The Rise of Immigrant Influence in New York City Politics
      (pp. 203-229)
      JOHN MOLLENKOPF

      While we have known that immigrants and their children have made up a majority of New York City’s residents since the Federal Government’s Current Population Survey (CPS) began to collect data on parents’ place of birth in 1994, it may come as a surprise that they are now approaching a majority of its voting-age citizens as well. The November 2008 CPS indicates that 58 percent of the population and 48 percent of voting-age citizens are either immigrants or have at least one immigrant parent. (Native-born minority groups with native parents, such as African Americans and Puerto Ricans, constitute another 23...

    • 8 Immigrant Political Engagement and Incorporation in Amsterdam
      (pp. 230-256)
      FLORIS VERMEULEN, LAURE MICHON and JEAN TILLIE

      Over the past 50 years, first- and second-generation immigrants have grown from less than 1 percent of Amsterdam’s population to more than 50 percent (Wintershoven 2000; O+S 2010).¹ Given this profound demographic change, newcomers’ political representation is especially relevant. How have immigrants entered the precincts of power in Amsterdam over the last two decades?² In exploring this question, we analyze the different processes of political incorporation of the city’s three largest immigrant groups: Surinamese, Turks, and Moroccans. The results are, at first glance, puzzling. Surinamese and Moroccan immigrants have relatively low participation rates, but have had relatively high levels of...

  9. PART V: HOW ARE THE CHILDREN OF IMMIGRANTS SHAPED BY AND ALSO CHANGING NEW YORK CITY’S AND AMSTERDAM’S CULTURAL LIFE?

    • [PART V: Introduction]
      (pp. 257-262)

      Cities of migration are the birthplaces of new artistic and cultural forms. Children of immigrants play a vital role in such innovation. They bring all kinds of new ideas, outlooks, and practices into the cultural arena. Influenced by their immigrant parents as well as the receiving society and city, the second-generation children of immigrants find themselves in a special position from which they may rework and challenge established repertoires and invent new styles and forms of artistic expression. The question is not so muchifthe second generation is a source of cultural creativity and innovation. This seems to happen...

    • 9 Immigrants, the Arts, and the “Second-Generation Advantage” in New York
      (pp. 263-286)
      PHILIP KASINITZ

      When we think of the culture of New York or Amsterdam, artistic innovation, high levels of cultural diversity, and a brusque but tolerant cosmopolitanism are often what come to mind.¹ These images are, of course, stereotypes. Yet they contain more than a grain of truth. Both cities have long been centers of cultural innovation. Both are hubs of artistic production and cultural industries (Kloosterman 2005). And in both it is widely acknowledged that ethnic diversity has something to do with this. The idea that demographic diversity and cultural creativity are connected is part of the way New Yorkers and Amsterdammers...

    • 10 Immigrant Youths’ Contribution to Urban Culture in Amsterdam
      (pp. 287-310)
      CHRISTINE DELHAYE, SAWITRI SAHARSO and VICTOR VAN DE VEN

      Amsterdam’s cultural life has been changed in a variety of ways by the children of immigrants. Taking our lead from Ulf Hannerz (1992), in this chapter we look at Amsterdam’s culture from a processual perspective. Cultures are always in a state of flux, and this is obviously the case in contemporary globalized societies such as the Netherlands, which not only face growing internal diversity owing to, among other things, processes of professionalization and specialization but have also witnessed large-scale inflows of people from abroad.

      In seeking to shed light on the complex and varied ways that the children of migrants...

  10. ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. 311-316)
  11. INDEX
    (pp. 317-328)