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Stopping the Killing: How Civil Wars End

Edited by Roy Licklider
Copyright Date: 1993
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 366
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    Stopping the Killing
    Book Description:

    Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Liberia, Somalia, Azerbaijan, El Salvador, Northern Ireland, Lebanon, Cambodia -- all provide bloody evidence that civil wars continue to have a powerful impact on the international scene. Because they tear at the very fabric of a society and pit countryman against countryman, civil wars are often the most brutal and difficult to extinguish -- witness the American Revolution. And yet, civil wars do inevitably end. England is no longer criss-crossed by warring armies representing York and Lancaster or King and Parliament. The French no longer kill one another over the divine right of kings. Argentines seem reconciled to living in a single state, rather than several. The ideologies of the Spanish Civil War now seem largely irrelevant. And the possibility of Southern secession is an issue long-buried in the American past. The question then begs itself: how do people who have been killing one another with considerable enthusiasm and success come together to form a common government? How can individuals and factions work together, politically and economically, with others who have killed their friends, parents, children and lovers? How are armed societies disarmed? What effect does a total military victory have on a lasting peace? In sum, how are civil societies constructed from civil violence and chaos? This is the central concern of Stopping the Killing.In this highly original and much needed volume, a distinguished group of experts on civil wars discuss both specific conflicts and broader theoretical issues. Individual chapters examine civil wars in Colombia, the Sudan, Yemen, America, Greece, and Nigeria, and analyze the causes of peace, the relationship between the battlefield and the negotiating table, and issues of settlement. An introduction and conclusion by the editor unify the volume. Contributors include: Jonathan Hartlyn (Univ. of North Carolina), Caroline Hartzell (Univ. of California, Davis), Jane E. Holl (U.S. Military Academy), John Iatrides (Southern Connecticut State University), James O'Connell (University of Bradford), Donald Rothchild (Univ. of California, Davis), Stephen John Stedman (Johns Hopkins Univ.), Robert Harrison Wagner (Univ. of Texas, Austin), Harvey Waterman (Rutgers Univ.), Manfred Wenner (Northern Illinois Univ.), and I. William Zartman (Johns Hopkins Univ.).

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-6542-5
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. PART I. Introduction

    • ONE How Civil Wars End: Questions and Methods
      (pp. 3-19)
      Roy Licklider

      Our world is filled with violence of every sort, from the daily random killings of children by stray gunfire to mass murders and large-scale wars in places we can hardly locate on maps. But even in this environment of violence, civil war retains a particular horror.

      Perhaps this is because of the peculiarintensityof many such conflicts. We say that family fights are the worst because the degree of feeling is so deep, that you really have to know someone to hate them. James Rosenau (1964, 73) argues that the intensity stems from the depth of prewar ties which...

    • TWO The Unfinished Agenda: Negotiating Internal Conflicts
      (pp. 20-34)
      I. William Zartman

      Not all internal conflicts have been successfully negotiated. Many are still under discussion, negotiations having been tried but settlement not having been reached. The striking characteristic of all of them is the protracted nature of the conflict. “Protracted conflict” is a term formerly taken to refer to the Cold War (Strausz-Hupé et al., 1959); it is now understood that internal, frequently ethnic conflicts are even more durable (Mitchell, 1992). More than interstate conflict, internal conflicts seem to have the ability to continue for decades and arrive neither at victorious resolution for one side nor at satisfactory reconciliation for both. Why...

  5. PART II. Cases

    • THREE Civil Violence and Conflict Resolution: The Case of Colombia
      (pp. 37-61)
      Jonathan Hartlyn

      In Colombia, from the late 1940s to the early 1960s, some 200,000 Colombians died during an extensive bloodletting known simply asla violencia(the violence). In the 1980s, violence once again picked up force, and by the late 1980s, there were some 2,000 to 3,000 political homicides per year in a country that had an overall murder rate five times higher than that of the United States. This kind of violence is not new to the country. Following the major post-independence conflicts of 1827–32 and 1839–42, the country suffered seven major civil confrontations in the second half of...

    • FOUR The Peace Process in the Sudan, 1971–1972
      (pp. 63-93)
      Donald Rothchild and Caroline Hartzell

      Africa’s civil wars, and especially those which hold out the prospect of the break-up of the state, are not normally amenable to political compromise and negotiation. However, this grim scenario does have its notable exceptions. In the Sudan, a rather unique process was set in motion that led, in 1972, to a negotiated settlement of a protracted civil war. The resulting Addis Ababa Agreement was implemented, and the country settled down to a near decade of seemingly peaceful relations.

      Does a mere decade of peace justify the conclusion that the Addis Ababa Agreement constitutes a case of successful negotiations? We...

    • FIVE The Civil War in Yemen, 1962–1970
      (pp. 95-123)
      Manfred W. Wenner

      The contemporary state known as the Republic of Yemen officially came into being on 22 May 1990 as a result of the unification of the two previously existing Yemeni states: the Yemen Arab Republic (often known as North Yemen) and the Peoples Democratic Republic of Yemen (usually known as South Yemen). The previous experiences of the YAR and the PDRY were markedly different, in both political and economic terms. For North Yemen, the most important political event of the post-war era is unquestionably the civil war which wracked that country from 1962 to 1970, and eventually resulted in the political...

    • SIX The End of the Zimbabwean Civil War
      (pp. 125-163)
      Stephen John Stedman

      At a time when Africa has become out of vogue for American political science, it has become a remarkable laboratory for the study of conflict resolution. At present in Africa three countries (Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Namibia) are reconstructing after civil wars—the latter two ended by negotiation, one country (Sudan) has reached agreements to end civil violence only to find itself in the throes of civil war again, and four other countries (Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique, and South Africa) have undergone negotiations in the last year to end violence and bring about new political orders.

      In this chapter I examine the...

    • SEVEN The End of the American Civil War
      (pp. 164-187)
      Stephen John Stedman

      Over 620,000 soldiers died in the American civil war, a staggering amount comparable to many of the most gruesome prolonged wars in the world over the last ten years. The number of American dead in that war approximates the number of American dead in all of America’s other wars combined. One would imagine that such a war would interest scholars of comparative politics, and political science writ large. After all, America, long discussed in terms of its exceptionalism, underwent problems of political development similar to those of other countries, and the most important solutions to those problems were forged in...

    • EIGHT The Ending of the Nigerian Civil War: Victory, Defeat, and the Changing of Coalitions
      (pp. 189-203)
      James O’Connell

      It is difficult to be precise about the causes of war. War results from a series of decisions in which events take on the meaning that persons and groups give them.¹ In the Nigerian case there were underlying reasons for the drift towards conflict, rooted in the geographical and ethnic shape of a huge colonial-made state and in its pace and pattern of political and economic development. There were more immediate sources in the political patterns of interaction between the ethnic groups after independence. These patterns were heavily influenced by the federal structure fashioned for independence, by the uneven spread...

    • NINE The Doomed Revolution: Communist Insurgency in Postwar Greece
      (pp. 205-232)
      John O. Iatrides

      The Greek communist insurgency of the late 1940s has been viewed as one of Europe’s major civil wars of the twentieth century (Laqueur, 1976, 286). For a brief moment it appeared to have the strength not only to overthrow by force the Athens government and replace it with a revolutionary regime, but to influence as well the emerging East-West conflict in favor of the Soviet Union (Acheson, 1969, 219). Yet such perceptions proved faulty. During the time when the communists could have seized control of the country, they remained largely ambivalent and on the defensive. By 1947, when the insurgency...

  6. PART III. Theoretical Issues and Problems

    • TEN The Causes of Peace
      (pp. 235-268)
      Robert Harrison Wagner

      Because of the division of intellectual labor between students of domestic and international politics, the causes of civil and interstate wars tend to be studied separately.¹ However, the justification for this division of labor is not as clear as it is commonly believed to be.

      Writers in the Realist tradition have taught generations of students that international politics is fundamentally different from domestic politics.² It is different because there is no government at the global level, and therefore no institution to enforce agreements or restrict the means people use for accomplishing their objectives. Domestic politics, however, takes place in an...

    • ELEVEN When War Doesn’t Work: Understanding the Relationship between the Battlefield and the Negotiating Table
      (pp. 269-291)
      Jane E. Holl

      There is a persistent, intuitive belief that decisive success on the battlefield confers victory in war. This observation seems so obvious as to be trite, yet history records many cases in which belligerents’ claims to battlefield streamers were far more secure than the objectives for which those battles were fought. Prominent cases spring to mind: America’s war in Vietnam; the Soviet Union’s failed effort in Afghanistan; the Israeli adventure in Lebanon.

      Clearly, however, if war were such a consistently unprofitable enterprise we might reasonably expect to observe fewer instances of it. We suffer from no lack of material for study,...

    • TWELVE Political Order and the “Settlement” of Civil Wars
      (pp. 292-302)
      Harvey Waterman

      Whatever else they may be, civil wars are conflicts over political order. They may arise when an existing order is challenged and their termination depends on agreement on a new one. The circumstances of that agreement, therefore, can be understood asthe re-creation of the conditions for a viable, common political order. These conditions may not, in the end, produce a viable order and levels of conflict may increase, perhaps even rekindling the large-scale violence called “civil war.” The common order created may not be a centralized one; indeed, it may, as a result of a separation, be an order...

    • THIRTEEN What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go from Here?
      (pp. 303-322)
      Roy Licklider

      The authors in this book have attempted to explain how civil wars end and why they do not resume in terms of five questions or variable clusters: the issues in dispute, the internal politics of the various sides, the activities of third parties, battlefield outcomes, and the nature of the settlement. What, if anything, have we learned from this exercise?

      Perhaps the clearest lesson is thatsettlements of civil wars can emerge under a remarkable variety of conditions. We have found settlements of conflicts with separatist and revolutionary goals, united and divided contestants, intense warlike and peaceful activities and no...

  7. Bibliography
    (pp. 323-340)
  8. Contributors
    (pp. 341-342)
  9. Index
    (pp. 343-355)
  10. Back Matter
    (pp. 356-357)