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New Perspectives on Racial Identity Development

New Perspectives on Racial Identity Development: Integrating Emerging Frameworks, Second Edition

Charmaine L. Wijeyesinghe
Bailey W. Jackson
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 272
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  • Book Info
    New Perspectives on Racial Identity Development
    Book Description:

    New Perspectives onRacial Identity Developmentbringstogether leaders in the field to deepen, broaden, and reassess ourunderstandings of racial identity development. Contributors include the authorsof some of the earliest theories in the field, such as William Cross, Bailey W.Jackson, Jean Kim, Rita Hardiman, and Charmaine L. Wijeyesinghe, who offer newanalysis of the impact of emerging frameworks on how racial identity is viewedand understood. Other contributors present new paradigms and identify criticalissues that must be considered as the field continues to evolve.This new and completelyrewritten second edition uses emerging research from related disciplines thatoffer innovative approaches that have yet to be fully discussed in theliterature on racial identity. Intersectionality receives significant attentionin the volume, as it calls for models of social identity to take a moreholistic and integrated approach in describing the lived experience ofindividuals.This volume offers newperspectives on how we understand and study racial identity in a culture whererace and other identities are socially constructed and carry significantsocietal, political, and group meaning.

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-2453-8
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
    (pp. ix-x)
    (pp. xi-xii)
    (pp. 1-10)

    From initial theories influenced by the experience of African Americans during the civil rights movement, the study of racial identity development has expanded to encompass a range of racial groups, including Whites, Asian Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and people with multiple racial backgrounds. Models of racial identity development are tools for understanding how individuals achieve an awareness of their sense of self in relation to race within a larger social, cultural, and historical context. Faculty members, counselors, organizational consultants, and mediators have integrated aspects of racial identity development theory into their teaching and practice—having found that the models provide...

  6. 1 Creating and Re-Creating Race: The Emergence of Racial Identity as a Critical Element in Psychological, Sociological, and Ecological Perspectives on Human Development
    (pp. 11-32)

    In the United States, race is a highly salient organizing social category. Race is a social construction based on physical appearance (skin color, hair color and texture, facial features), ancestry, nationality, and culture. It is used foridentification—for example, to place individuals into demographic groups for various purposes—and asidentity—the meaning individuals and groups ascribe to membership in racial categories. Identification results from external assignment or categorization, whereas identity results from internal processes as individuals encounter external influences. The history of racial identification and racial identity in the United States began with the European colonization of North...

  7. 2 Black Identity Development: Influences of Culture and Social Oppression
    (pp. 33-50)

    It has been a little over ten years since the Black Identity Development (BID) model as a theoretical framework (Jackson 2001) was presented in the first volume ofNew Perspectives on Racial Identity Development: A Theoretical and Practical Anthology(Wijeyesinghe and Jackson 2001). Since then, there have been a number of national, global, and environmental events and changes in thinking about social issues and constructions that must be considered when approaching an update on BID as a theoretical framework for understanding Black identity development. In this chapter there will not only be a consideration of some of the more significant...

  8. 3 Latina and Latino Ethnoracial Identity Orientations: A Dynamic and Developmental Perspective
    (pp. 51-80)

    Since 2000, the visibility of Latinas and Latinos in the United States has increased dramatically.¹ Yet, in our experience, in spite of a great increase in the amount of scholarly and popular literature addressing Latino issues, this growth both in numbers and in the national consciousness has not been accompanied by a deeper, more nuanced, and shared understanding of the complexities of Latino² identity and experience.

    In 2000, just before we first published our model of Latina and Latino racial identity orientations (Ferdman and Gallegos 2001), Latinos constituted 13.7 percent of the U.S. population (including Puerto Rico), and there was...

  9. 4 The Intersectional Model of Multiracial Identity: Integrating Multiracial Identity Theories and Intersectional Perspectives on Social Identity
    (pp. 81-107)

    Since 2000 research, literature, and commentary on Multiracial people has grown in both quantity and diversity.¹ From an initial focus on individuals of Black and White ancestry the literature on Multiracial people now includes the experiences of other Multiracial populations, such as Asian and Native American or Black and Latino individuals, as well as Multiracial people in other countries.² Results from research, advocacy, and social movements related to Multiracial people have advanced not only our understanding of Multiracial identity, but of identity development in other racial groups, and of the broader field of social identity development.

    Other academic disciplines such...

  10. 5 Twenty-First Century Native American Consciousness: A Thematic Model of Indian Identity
    (pp. 108-120)

    In the first edition ofNew PerspectivesI presented a paradigm of American Indian consciousness based on at least five psychosocial influences (Horse 2001). Such influences occur at the individual or group levels. I revisit these briefly as part of this introduction. Additional commentary will follow. Indian identity issues are bound to be affected in significant ways due to the passage of time. Succeeding generations of Indian people may see identity from a different perspective than we who are products of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, the topics covered herein are cross-generational in terms of historical analysis.

    Usually, three descriptors have...

  11. 6 White Identity Development Revisited: Listening to White Students
    (pp. 121-137)

    Research and writing on White racial identity development has been located in the disciplines of Education and Counseling Psychology and includes the early models of Hardiman (1982) and Helms (1984) and subsequent models by Sue and Sue (2003), Rowe, Bennett, and Atkinson (1994), and Sabnani, Ponterotto, and Borodovsky (1991), which articulated stages similar to those of Hardiman and Helms. As discussed in “Reflections on White Identity Development Theory” inNew Perspectives on Racial Identity(Hardiman 2001), the Hardiman and Helms models emerged in the years following the resurgence of the civil rights and Black power movements of the 1960s and...

  12. 7 Asian American Racial Identity Development Theory
    (pp. 138-160)

    This chapter reviews the theory of Asian American racial identity development (AARID) that was created by the author in the early 1980s and updated in the context of the evolution of social identity theories over the past thirty years.

    An overview of how researchers approach social identities starts the chapter, followed by a discussion of the importance of the social context and the impact of racism on Asian American racial identity development. The review of the AARID is followed by a section that examines the relevance of the AARID theory to Asian Americans today. The chapter explores changes in the...

  13. 8 The “Simultaneity” of Identities: Models and Skills for the Twenty-First Century
    (pp. 161-191)

    Two major forces are changing the meanings and models of identity in the twenty-first century. The first force is globalization. With its free flow of goods, capital, labor, and culture across national boundaries and throughout the world, globalization challenges notions of stable and one-dimensional identities (Bauman 1998; Lewellen 2002). The consequence of people crossing national boundaries in search of work and opportunities to live and work in new cultures and nations is that new identities, such as the “international migrant” and the “transnational immigrant” are constructed (Lewellen 2002, 130). In addition, goods, capital, and cultures travel to new locations, with...

  14. 9 The Enactment of Race and Other Social Identities during Everyday Transactions
    (pp. 192-215)

    Within and across the discourses on social justice education, multiculturalism, and ethnic studies (inclusive of Black Studies), content specificity and particularism define the primary points of departure. Native American Identity, Women’s and Feminist Identity, Gay and Lesbian Identity, and African American Identity, as cases in point, emphasize different content, unique predicaments, and distinctive life stressors. Textbooks used in counselor education typically include separate chapters on the identity dynamics, content specificity, and family patterns for key social groups (Diller 2007). This is also true for texts used in social justice education (Adams, Bell, and Griffin 2007). Multiculturalism and social justice education...

  15. 10 Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching about Racial Identity from an Intersectional Perspective
    (pp. 216-240)

    Historically, few racial identity models have included or allowed for the effect that other categories of difference (e.g., ethnicity, sex, gender, class, sexuality, age, ability, religion, and nationality) have on an individual’s racial identity. Yet, how people develop and experience their racial identity is interconnected with the other aspects of their identity. It has become increasingly clear that racial identity cannot be understood apart from other social identities. As evidenced in other chapters in this volume (see Gallegos and Ferdman, Holvino, and Wijeyesinghe), racial identity theorists are updating or creating conceptual models that capture this complex interrelationship between race and...

    (pp. 241-244)
  17. INDEX
    (pp. 245-251)