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Internationalizing the History of Psychology

EDITED BY Adrian C. Brock
Copyright Date: 2006
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 268
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  • Book Info
    Internationalizing the History of Psychology
    Book Description:

    While the United States was dominant in the development of psychology for much of the twentieth century, other countries have experienced significant growth in this area since the end of World War II. The percentage of those in the discipline who live and work in the United States has been growing smaller, and it is now impossible to completely understand the field if developments in psychology outside of the United States are ignored.Internationalizing the History of Psychology brings together luminaries in the field from around the world to address the internationalizing of psychology, each raising core issuesconcerning what an international perspective can contributeto the history of psychology and to our understanding of psychology as a whole. For too long, much of what we havetaken to be the history of psychology has actually been thehistory of American psychology. This volume, ideal for student use and for those in the field, illuminates how what we have been missing may change our views of the nature of psychology and its history.Contributors: Ruben Ardila, Geoffrey Blowers, Adrian C. Brock, Kurt Danziger, Aydan Gulerce, John D. Hogan, Naomi Lee, Johann Louw, Fathali M. Moghaddam, Anand C. Paranjpe, Irmingard Staeuble, Cecilia Taiana, and Thomas P. Vaccaro.

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-3908-2
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. 1-15)
    Adrian C. Brock

    The title of this section is meant to be tongue in cheek, but it does have a serious purpose. Many psychologists acquire their knowledge of the history of psychology from one or more of the glossy American textbooks on the subject. This is especially true of the vast majority of psychologists who do not go on to become specialists in the area. The textbooks not only are read and studied by Americans but also are widely used in other English-speaking countries, such as Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Australia. The works are also very often translated into...

  5. Chapter 1 Constructing Subjectivity in Unexpected Places
    (pp. 16-33)
    Johann Louw

    I started my academic career twenty-five years ago, in a new, small university in a remote area of South Africa. I had just completed a postgraduate degree in the Netherlands, and I was overwhelmed with a feeling of isolation and being far away from it all—in more than one sense. Over the years parts of this sense of being stuck far from the center remained; after all, I lived not only on the southern tip of Africa, but it was also apartheid South Africa. It surely felt like a huge drawback to be a psychologist-academic so far from what...

  6. Chapter 2 Transatlantic Migration of the Disciplines of the Mind: Examination of the Reception of Wundt’s and Freud’s Theories in Argentina
    (pp. 34-55)
    Cecilia Taiana

    The intellectual relationships between Argentina and Germany and between Argentina and France are examined through the particular case of the arrival of the theories of Wilhelm Wundt and Sigmund Freud in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century. An analysis of the under-representation of Wundt’s theories in Argentina’s experimental psychology and the struggle for the emergence and ascendancy of psychoanalytical discourse demonstrates independently that preexisting discourses in the disciplines of the mind (neurology, psychiatry, and psychology) provided the conditions of possibility for a complex history of resistance to, and acceptance of, Wundt’s and Freud’s theories in this period.¹...

  7. Chapter 3 From Tradition through Colonialism to Globalization: Reflections on the History of Psychology in India
    (pp. 56-74)
    Anand C. Paranjpe

    The history of psychology in India, as in the case of its history in the Western world, stretches back to ancient times. Contemporary Indian psychologists generally tend to ignore the contributions of the pre-modern period. Trained in modern Western psychology, they tend to share their Western counterparts’ enthusiasm for “scientific” psychology, as well as a Whig approach to history that views later developments as superior to earlier ones (Leahey, 1987). In India as in the West, pre-modern psychology is often deemed to be philosophy. However, in India when compared to the Western world, there is an additional factor that has...

  8. Chapter 4 History of Psychology in Turkey as a Sign of Diverse Modernization and Global Psychologization
    (pp. 75-93)
    Aydan Gulerce

    Although there has been a growing awareness of the constructive role of writing history in many fields, this chapter stems from an observation that progress in the interdependent areas of historical studies, in the direction of critical theory/practice (Horkheimer, 1982) which is not “critical enough” (Gulerce, 2001) and of new cultural history which is not so “new” (Dow, 1898; Kelley, 1996; Robinson, 1912; Ware, 1940), currently range from very limited to none. In other words, critical/cultural history needs to be further “glocal” (simultaneously both, global and local) and transformative. The task might seem rather huge as it demands a radical...

  9. Chapter 5 Origins of Scientific Psychology in China, 1899–1949
    (pp. 94-111)
    Geoffrey Blowers

    While psychology in China can be thought of as a traditional subject linked to the long-standing teachings of Confucius, Mencius, Laozi, and their followers, the modern discipline that emerged out of Euro-America only began to make an impact in the first decade of the twentieth century. Chinese philosophers had not made any special study of mind-body problems, nor had they sought an empirical analysis of them against European Enlightenment science. Like other sciences from nineteenth-century Europe, psychology was “unrecognizable to the Chinese, who had to discover, adopt and adapt it along with other strange new things from the West.” (Reardon-Anderson,...

  10. Chapter 6 Behavior Analysis in an International Context
    (pp. 112-132)
    Ruben Ardila

    Cognitivism is considered the dominant paradigm in psychology at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It supposedly replaced the former paradigm, behaviorism, which dominated in psychology until the 1960s. It has been stated that behaviorism is “dead,” it is out of fashion, and it has been replaced by a more complex and holistic model, which is cognitivism.

    Nothing is more misguided than this. In the first place, it is not accurate that behaviorism had been the dominant approach in psychology until the 1960s. In fact, during this period many other models were influential, such as structuralism, psychoanalysis, Gestalt and humanist...

  11. Chapter 7 Internationalizing the History of U.S. Developmental Psychology
    (pp. 133-151)
    John D. Hogan and Thomas P. Vaccaro

    Contemporary research has emphasized the degree to which human development is embedded in its culture and historical period. The notion, once very popular, that we carry within ourselves the essential elements for all of our future behavior—a throwback to a biological model for development—is now seen as outmoded and naïve. Instead, we have begun to appreciate that our particular time and place in history may determine not just the way we develop but, to a large degree, the way we conceptualize development. Can such forces also determine the way we write the history of developmental psychology?

    Psychology in...

  12. Chapter 8 Psychology and Liberal Democracy: A Spurious Connection?
    (pp. 152-162)
    Adrian C. Brock

    Does psychology have a special affinity with any kind of political system? At first glance, it would appear not. Since its appearance in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century, psychology has existed under just about every kind of political system that has existed in various parts of the world. It has existed in the democracies of Western Europe, North America, and Australasia, and it has existed in Nazi Germany, as well as in the former Soviet Union and its allies. Clearly, psychology can exist under a variety of governments, but the question remains as to whether it...

  13. Chapter 9 Double Reification: The Process of Universalizing Psychology in the Three Worlds
    (pp. 163-182)
    Fathali M. Moghaddam and Naomi Lee

    From a global perspective, psychology in the twenty-first century is characterized by two main features. First, on the world stage, psychology is dominated by the United States, which even before the collapse of the Soviet empire was described as the First World and the sole “superpower” of psychology (Moghaddam, 1987). Second, mainstream psychology, exported mainly from the United States, is now present in almost all Third World societies. Those interested in internationalizing the history of psychology must address the issue of how the United States became the dominant power in psychology and how mainstream psychology became global.

    A first possibility,...

  14. Chapter 10 Psychology in the Eurocentric Order of the Social Sciences: Colonial Constitution, Cultural Imperialist Expansion, Postcolonial Critique
    (pp. 183-207)
    Irmingard Staeuble

    Historians of Psychology had hardly started to inquire into the shaping of the discipline and profession in its Euro-American home countries when Psychology expanded rapidly outward, to Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Among historians and sociologists of science, this exciting move has not yet found the interest it deserves. The few edited books on this expansion provide hardly more than descriptive accounts of the state of Psychology around the world (e.g. Sexton and Misiak 1976; Blowers and Turtle 1987; Sexton and Hogan 1992). A notable exception is Alison Turtle’s introductory chapter, which did raise essential issues to be addressed by...

  15. Chapter 11 Universalism and Indigenization in the History of Modern Psychology
    (pp. 208-225)
    Kurt Danziger

    No historical study, whether of psychology or of something else, ever consists simply of a jumble of unrelated facts. Some thematic unity always ties the facts together. They may all have something to do with a particular person, for example, or a school of thought, or perhaps some form of psychological practice. Without such a unifying principle one would not be able to specify what any assembly of historical facts was the historyof.

    Where do these thematic unities come from? Unlike nuggets of historical information lying around in dusty archives, waiting to be collected, the thematic unities of historical...

  16. Postscript
    (pp. 226-240)
    Adrian C. Brock

    In the introduction to this book, I suggested that it would be misguided to justify an international history of psychology in terms of “inclusion,” however well-meaning the intentions might be. No one can hope to cover everything that has ever happened in the history of psychology at all times and in all places. Selection will inevitably occur. My quarrel is not with selection itself but with the kind of selections that have been made.

    In a well-known article on the future of the history of psychology, Kurt Danziger wrote:

    Psychologists in East and South Asia, in Africa and Latin America,...

  17. Contributors
    (pp. 241-244)
  18. Index
    (pp. 245-260)