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Turkeys European Future

Turkeys European Future: Behind the Scenes of Americas Influence on EU-Turkey Relations

Nathalie Tocci
Copyright Date: 2011
Published by: NYU Press
Pages: 240
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  • Book Info
    Turkeys European Future
    Book Description:

    A rapidly-changing nation and a key player in the Middle East, Turkey has long been centrally important to both the United States and the European Union. A major partner both of the EU and Turkey, the US has also been the most ardent and committed supporter of closer ties between them. Yet while Turkey's relations with the US and the EU have been intimately linked, they have not proceeded along two parallel planes. Nathalie Tocci tells the story of this dynamic triangular relationship, exploring how and why the US has shaped the course of relations among its allies. An empirical study with strong policy relevance, this volume draws on in-depth interviews and official documents to provide a succinct overview of the issues and stakeholders. Tocci argues that the Turkish situation can be viewed as a quintessential case study, tackling broader questions about US foreign policy in the region as a whole.

    eISBN: 978-0-8147-8445-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Chronology: US-Turkey-EU Relations
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  6. Preface
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  7. 1 Squaring the Triangle: Understanding American Influence
    (pp. 1-23)

    Turkey is of paramount importance to the United States (US) and to the European Union (EU). In the US, Turkey was viewed as a critical ally throughout the Cold War and has been considered a ‘strategic’ and ‘model’ partner since then. In Europe, Turkey has been an integral part of the continent’s centuries-long history and has enjoyed structured relations with the European integration project almost since its inception. Turkey’s ties to the US and to the EU have not proceeded along parallel paths, but they have been intimately linked. The US is not only the first and foremost partner of...

  8. 2 The View from Washington: American Debates and Stakeholders
    (pp. 24-47)

    In America, Turkey is viewed as a clear-cut foreign policy question. As such, the broad contours of American views of Turkey are set by US foreign policy norms, interests, and objectives. There are structural reasons why this is so, ranging from America’s geographical distance from Turkey to the strategic logic underpinning US-Turkey relations. However, an exclusive foreign policy lens does not mean that American views and debates about Turkey, US-Turkey relations, and EU-Turkey relations are monolithic. This is hardly the case. American approaches vary across stakeholders, and the relative weight of these approaches has changed over time.

    In order to...

  9. 3 Behind the Scenes of the EU: European Debates and Stakeholders
    (pp. 48-76)

    An insightful key to understanding Turkey’s long march to Europe as well as the scope of American influence on EU-Turkey relations is to explore European debates on Turkey. European debates are not simply ‘for’ or ‘against’ Turkey. It is true that a majority of public opinion across the EU opposes Turkey’s accession nowadays. But most importantly for our purposes, the causes of support and opposition to Turkey’s EU aspirations vary widely and shift over time. These underlying causes relate to a set of debates articulated by stakeholders within and across EU member states.

    The significance of European debates on Turkey...

  10. 4 Transatlantic Debates: The Role of Direct American Advocacy
    (pp. 77-103)

    Chapter 2 explored the American debates on Turkey and explained how, as Turkish-American relations reconfigured after the Cold War, Washington began pressing for Turkey’s deeper integration into the European Union. Chapter 3 turned to European debates on Turkey, highlighting how these reach beyond the technicalities of Turkey’s European integration and mirror opinions about Turkey, Europe, and the world. Some of these debates overlap with strategic American interests and visions; many others emerged and evolved independently. With this context in mind, this chapter begins exploring the dynamics between the US, Turkey, and the EU by assessing when and why American advocacy...

  11. 5 Influencing Europe Through the Back Door: The Role of US-Turkey Relations
    (pp. 104-127)

    As discussed in chapter 4, the US, through its advocacy over the years, was pivotal in jump-starting Turkey’s accession process. Over the last decade, however, the effectiveness of American ideational and discursive power on Europe declined. Notwithstanding, the US has continued to play a significant role indirectly, by shaping the overall strategic and intellectual environments in which EU-Turkey relations unfold. This chapter explores how, deliberately or otherwise, the US has influenced Turkey’s path to Europe through its own relationship with Turkey. It begins by mapping the ebbs and flows in US-Turkey relations over the twentieth century and beyond. It then...

  12. 6 Global Implications: American Foreign Policy in Turkey’s Neighborhood
    (pp. 128-154)

    Another facet of indirect American influence on EU-Turkey relations pertains to US policy in Turkey’s neighborhood, its implications for Turkish foreign policy and how these shape European approaches to Turkey. In view of the broad scope of this text, this chapter concentrates on a confined set of US foreign policy initiatives in Turkey’s northern and southern neighborhoods since the early 1990s. In the Middle East, it addresses the implications of the first and second wars in Iraq and US democracy promotion policies. In Eastern Europe, it analyses the repercussions of the NATO interventions in Bosnia and Kosovo and the US’s...

  13. 7 Conclusion: Unpacking the Triangle
    (pp. 155-174)

    This book is the result of an inquiry inspired by a paradox. On the one hand, actors on both sides of the Atlantic recognize that the US does and can only have a limited influence on Turkey’s relations with the European Union. On the other hand, Turkey is an integral part of the transatlantic relationship, and has been conspicuously present in transatlantic debates on a broad range of questions for many years. Rarely does a transatlantic meeting on strategic issues go by without Turkey and its neighborhood featuring somehow in the discussion. But if Turkey is so prominent in the...

  14. Notes
    (pp. 175-188)
  15. Bibliography
    (pp. 189-206)
  16. Index
    (pp. 207-213)
  17. About the Author
    (pp. 214-214)