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Regulating international students’ wellbeing

Regulating international students’ wellbeing

Gaby Ramia
Simon Marginson
Erlenawati Sawir
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  • Book Info
    Regulating international students’ wellbeing
    Book Description:

    Cross-border education is a fast growing and diverse global market, but little is known about how international students actually live. Using international and cross-country comparative analysis, this book explores how governments influence international student welfare, and how students shape their own opportunities. As well as formal regulation by government, ‘informal regulation’ through students’ family, friendship and co-student networks proves vital to the overseas experience. Two case study countries - Australia and New Zealand - are presented and compared in detail. These are placed in the global regulatory and market contexts, with lessons for similar exporter countries drawn. Regulating international students’ wellbeing will be of interest to international students, student representative bodies, education policy makers and administrators, as well as civil servants and policy makers in international organisations. Students and researchers of international and comparative social policy will be drawn into its focus on a little understood but vulnerable global population.

    eISBN: 978-1-4473-1016-7
    Subjects: Education, Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. List of tables and figures
    (pp. iv-v)
  2. ONE Introduction: global students and their discontents
    (pp. 1-18)

    Each year a growing number of college and university students are travelling to foreign countries (nations other than the nation in which they hold citizenship rights) in order to study. Between 2000 and 2010 the worldwide number of foreign students increased from 2.1 million to 4.1 million, an expansion of 99 per cent in only a decade (OECD, 2011, p 364). Total student mobility is much greater, as it also includes students who travel for semester-length programmes or on short-term student exchanges. In short, international education is part of the biography of more and more people. It has become a...

  3. TWO Governing globalisation? National regulation and international student wellbeing
    (pp. 19-38)

    Economic anthropologist Karl Polanyi (1944) argued in hisThe great transformationthat not only should markets not be left alone to ‘self-regulate’, but that in the long term theycould notfunction by themselves. If the state did not step into their operation and if other institutional forces and collectivities were not engaged for social and community enhancement, markets would not allocate resources efficiently. The market would fail comprehensively unless it was regulated by the state and influenced by non-commercially interested actors. Polanyi agreed with Robert Owen, who argued that the ‘market economy if left to evolve according to its...

  4. THREE Fast growing, diverse: mapping the business of international education
    (pp. 39-58)

    Understanding the wellbeing of international students requires a discussion of the global market context within which cross-border education is taking place. At the heart of the international education strategies of many exporter governments is the ongoing competitive push for global market share. Australia and New Zealand typify this export-maximising approach, as we argue in the coming chapters. Before embarking on an analysis of these two countries, however, it is important to survey the political economy of the global market within which nation-states are competing, and this is the central purpose of this chapter.

    The international education market is fast growing...

  5. FOUR ‘There’s gold in them thar students!’ Australia and New Zealand in the global market
    (pp. 59-76)

    In the period between 2000 and 2010, among the developed nations of the OECD, Australia and New Zealand (and particularly the latter) increased their global market share sharply. Inward student mobility into these two European heritage nations on the border of Asia increased more rapidly than in other OECD nations. This was not only because of a relatively favourable location next to the fast moving zones of economic development in East and Southeast Asia. For most of the 1990s and 2000s the Australian and New Zealand governments encouraged the rapid growth of international education as a source of revenue and...

  6. FIVE Much regulation, minimal protection: the Australian model
    (pp. 77-98)

    The Australian model of international student welfare regulation has more formal provisions than almost all others. It has a more extensive body of legislation dealing directly with international higher education than comparable Anglo common law countries, such as the UK and the US, and it has an accompanying set of regulations guiding educational providers. Australia is a signatory to GATS, thus bearing (albeit loose) connections to international instruments. There are also extensive rules on migration through education, which continue to evolve to the time of writing, conventions governing the provision of trans-national education, quality assurance mechanisms and individual legal provisions...

  7. SIX Pastoral care, minimal information: the New Zealand model
    (pp. 99-118)

    Similar to Australia, the New Zealand model of international education regulation has a great many formal provisions when viewed alongside other common law countries. New Zealand is a signatory to GATS. There are similar regulations on migration through international education, although these are currently less strict than their Australian counterparts. There are rules governing the provision of TNHE and quality assurance. Although New Zealand has individual legal provisions, these are also less elaborate than those of Australia in their implementation, due mainly to the unitary rather than federal nature of the New Zealand constitution; hence there is no need for...

  8. SEVEN Different frameworks, similar outcomes: comparing Australia and New Zealand
    (pp. 119-136)

    The broader regulatory environment of international education in New Zealand seems more settled than that in Australia. Racism, at least in relation to discrimination against incoming students, is a different and currently less pressing problem there. Government is more sturdy in its regulatory role and the export challenge posed by significant currency appreciation on world financial markets is less problematic in New Zealand, although the ongoing global financial crisis has had a far lower impact in Australia. Educationally and administratively sub-standard vocational colleges have been a greater problem for Australia. As discussed in this chapter, this is partly due to...

  9. EIGHT Doing it differently: national and global re-regulation and trans-national student citizens
    (pp. 137-154)

    What are the prospects for regulation in Australia and New Zealand from this point? What needs to be done at the national level and what are the possibilities in the trans-national arena? With student and staff interview data in respect of each regime effectively working against the idea that the two are substantively different to each other in terms of the welfare impact of formal regulation, whether national regulation ‘matters’ is an important question. On the other hand, similarity of comparative outcomes increases the likely utility of similar re-regulation. The comparative reform project is, in practice, made easier if the...

  10. NINE Conclusion
    (pp. 155-160)

    In international education, the language that appears in formal regulation does not reflect the student experience on the ground. Given the evidence uncovered through interview data with students and service and policy staff, the Australian regime is not entirely true to the promise of the ESOS Framework to provide ‘student welfare and support services’ and ‘nationally consistent standards for dealing with student complaints and appeals’ (DEST, 2007b, Part A.3.1). The New Zealand Pastoral Care Code comes closer than Australia to fulfilling its statedraison d’être: ‘to provide a framework for education providers for the pastoral care of international students’ (MOENZ,...