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Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements and Youth Justice

Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements and Youth Justice

Kerry Baker
Alex Sutherland
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  • Book Info
    Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements and Youth Justice
    Book Description:

    Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) are now one of the central features of government policy in the UK for managing the risk presented by violent and sexual offenders. Although there has been research and debate concerning the use of MAPPA with adult offenders, their application to young people has received relatively little attention until now. Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements & Youth Justice extends the existing literature on public protection. It provides a detailed exploration of MAPPA policy and practice in order to prompt further debate about the implications of the risk paradigm for young people and youth justice practitioners. In the book, key academics, practitioners and policy makers consider a range of theoretical and practical issues raised by the introduction of MAPPA including risk and children's rights, the use of professional discretion by practitioners, alternative approaches to risk management and suggestions for future policy development. It will be of interest to both professionals and academics working with young offenders and in youth justice.

    eISBN: 978-1-84742-443-3
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    (pp. 1-8)
    Alex Sutherland and Kerry Baker

    Public protection is always high on the political agenda in one form or another. The phrase ‘public protection’ began life within the criminal justice sphere as part of the government White PaperCrime, Justice and Protecting the Public(Home Office, 1990, cited in Merrington and Stanley, 2007, p 437). Since its introduction into the political lexicon, ‘public protection’ has been transformed into an umbrella term to cover a range of activities by local authorities and other government agencies,¹ but within the context of this book the phrase relates solely to serious offending (that is, violent and sexual offences). Although the...

  2. Part One: Young people and MAPPA:: current policy and practice

    • 1 Setting the scene: risk, welfare and rights
      (pp. 11-24)
      Sarah Jones and Kerry Baker

      This chapter will provide a brief introduction to systems for responding to offending by children and young people in England and Wales, of which Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) are one significant element. The aims of the chapter are to:

      provide an overview of the youth justice system in England and Wales for readers who may be unfamiliar with it;

      explain what MAPPA are and how they work;

      begin to highlight some of the complexities of the system as a foundation for the more detailed analysis and discussion of later chapters.

      MAPPA, as described in more detail below, are a...

    • 2 MAPPA: learning the lessons for young offenders
      (pp. 25-42)
      Hazel Kemshall and Jason Wood

      The 1990s saw a growing preoccupation with high-risk offenders, particularly their accurate identification, reliable risk assessment and effective risk management. By the turn of the century this preoccupation had also extended to young offenders, and included the formalised use of risk assessment tools and increasing attention to the early identification of those young offenders likely to become ‘dangerous’ (see Kemshall, 2008a, for a full review). A key component of the policy and organisational response to high-risk offenders was the development of the Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) (see Kemshall, 2003, for a full review). By the late 1990s, MAPPA extended...

    • 3 Youth Offending Teams and MAPPA: past problems, current challenges and future prospects
      (pp. 43-58)
      Alex Sutherland

      This chapter focuses on why there may be practical difficulties for Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) and those running Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) to work alongside one another, stemming from both historical trends and differing occupational cultures. This is not to say that all YOTs have problems working within the MAPPA framework; anecdotally we know that many YOTs operate very successfully in this area. However, the impression gathered from YOTs that took part in a recent research project (hereafter termed the Oxford MAPPA study) and reports from participants in a subsequent symposium was that this relationship can be problematic, and...

    • 4 Promoting public protection in youth justice: challenges for policy and practice
      (pp. 59-72)
      David Monk

      Tensions in our approach to children and young people who offend are by no means new and over the last 50 years or so these have been expressed in a variety of epithets, which, while headline grabbing, have not always been helpful. ‘Social welfare’ versus ‘justice’, ‘deprived’ versus ‘depraved’, ‘deeds’ versus ‘needs’ and ‘care’ versus ‘control’ are just a few examples of how this debate was framed in the post-war years, particularly the 1960s and 1970s. The tension remains today but the reformed youth justice system reflects a belief that different approaches can be used and that there is no...

  3. Part Two: Risk management through MAPPA:: the right approach for young people?

    • 5 Young people, serious offending and managing risk: a Scottish perspective
      (pp. 75-92)
      Fergus McNeill

      This chapter explores some of the issues surrounding the assessment and management of young people who have been involved in serious offending in Scotland. It begins by outlining how Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) have been set up in Scotland and identifies some of the practical challenges and issues that have arisen in the early implementation of these arrangements. The second section of the chapter briefly reviews some of the findings of a recent literature review on the risk assessment and risk management of children and young people engaging in offending behaviours. The review was commissioned by the Risk Management...

    • 6 MAPPA as ‘risk in action’: discretion and decision making
      (pp. 93-110)
      Kerry Baker

      At first sight, Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) may appear to be an obvious example of the dominance of ‘risk’ in current criminal justice and penal policy. However, although risk-based governance (O’Malley, 2004) is clearly a significant feature of modern society, there are still ‘unresolved struggles for pre-dominance between risk-based reasoning and other resources of knowledge, influence and prestige’ (Loader and Sparks, 2007, p 85). This suggests that the implementation of risk-based ways of working can be affected by interaction with other practice paradigms, as well as factors such as organisational culture or the professional values of practitioners.

      A related...

    • 7 MAPPA for kids: discourses of security, risk and children’s rights
      (pp. 111-124)
      Noel Whitty

      It is often claimed that, over the last decade, UK criminal justice policy has become increasingly preoccupied with the concepts of risk and public protection. Indeed, some academic and practitioner accounts now represent risk-based thinking and practices as the all-pervasive – and even dominant – force in contemporary offender management. However, during this very same period, the UK legal system² experienced its most seismic shift in decades: namely, the growth of rights consciousness and claims, the passing of the 1998 Human Rights Act (1998 HRA) and an ever-expanding culture of rights adjudication. This chapter will argue that these developments are...

  4. Conclusion
    (pp. 125-134)
    Kerry Baker and Alex Sutherland

    ‘Is MAPPA for kids?’ (Whitty, this volume). Why, when Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) are now an established and seemingly accepted part of the criminal justice system, does this question need to be asked? In fact, why devote a book to a rather specialist area of practice that only directly affects a small number of young people? Because, as the contributors to this volume have shown, debates about MAPPA require, and can also be a catalyst for, consideration of a range of significant theoretical and practical issues, including concepts of risk; the role of children’s rights; professional decision making; organisational...

  5. Appendix: Qualifying offences for MAPPA categories 1 and 2
    (pp. 135-146)