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Resource Extraction and Protest in Peru

Resource Extraction and Protest in Peru

MOISÉS ARCE
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt9qh8z9
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    Resource Extraction and Protest in Peru
    Book Description:

    Natural resource extraction has fueled protest movements in Latin America and existing research has drawn considerable scholarly attention to the politics of antimarket contention at the national level, particularly in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Argentina. Despite its residents reporting the third-highest level of protest participation in the region, Peru has been largely ignored in these discussions.In this groundbreaking study, Moisés Arce exposes a longstanding climate of popular contention in Peru. Looking beneath the surface to the subnational, regional, and local level as inception points, he rigorously dissects the political conditions that set the stage for protest. Focusing on natural resource extraction and its key role in the political economy of Peru and other developing countries, Arce reveals a wide disparity in the incidence, forms, and consequences of collective action.Through empirical analysis of protest events over thirty-one years, extensive personal interviews with policymakers and societal actors, and individual case studies of major protest episodes, Arce follows the ebb and flow of Peruvian protests over time and space to show the territorial unevenness of democracy, resource extraction, and antimarket contentions. Employing political process theory, Arce builds an interactive framework that views the moderating role of democracy, the quality of institutional representation as embodied in political parties, and most critically, the level of political party competition as determinants in the variation of protest and subsequent government response. Overall, he finds that both the fluidity and fragmentation of political parties at the subnational level impair the mechanisms of accountability and responsiveness often attributed to party competition. Thus, as political fragmentation increases, political opportunities expand, and contention rises. These dynamics in turn shape the long-term development of the state.Resource Extraction and Protest in Peruwill inform students and scholars of globalization, market transitions, political science, contentious politics and Latin America generally, as a comparative analysis relating natural resource extraction to democratic processes both regionally and internationally.

    eISBN: 978-0-8229-8031-5
    Subjects: Political Science, History

Table of Contents

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  1. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xi-xxiv)

    At the dawn of the twenty-first century, the face of Latin American democracy looked remarkably different than it did in the late 1970s. This new face revealed the political ascendancy of indigenous people, the growing political representation of women, and the rise of several leftist presidents across the region. These developments were not disconnected; rather, they were aided—some more than others—by an unexpected source of popular contention: political protest.

    Following Latin America’s third democratic wave, which began in 1978, much of the scholarly literature anticipated that conflicts involving political society would be resolved through representative institutions that evoke...

  2. PART I. THE FRAMEWORK

    • CHAPTER 1 RETHINKING THE CONSEQUENCES OF ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION
      (pp. 3-26)

      What are the societal consequences of economic liberalization under democracy? One perspective that has become front-page material in recent years evokes an image of a “backlash” against economic liberalization and globalization. Protestors from various sectors of civil society in several Latin American countries have ignited a cycle of popular resistance against the economic threats associated with economic liberalization policies (Almeida 2009; Silva 2009). Reminiscent of the “IMF riots” (Walton and Seddon 1994) that gripped the region during the 1980s, mass civic revolts have rolled back unpopular economic liberalization policies, even forced embattled promarket presidents to leave office early (Hochstetler 2006)....

    • CHAPTER 2 WAVES OF CONTENTIOUS POLITICS IN PERU
      (pp. 27-44)

      Several studies on the recent surge of mobilizations in Peru emphasize three broad characteristics of contentious episodes: their geographical segmentation or dispersion throughout the country; the presence of weak organizations supporting protest activity; and, finally, their low influence on national politics given the localized nature of the demands or policy goals of protest groups.¹ Generally, these mobilizations did not produce a “scale-shift” (McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly 2001), that is, a process in which isolated instances of protests transform into national-level protest movements. These studies also make note of the eruption of protests in a context of unprecedented economic expansion, aided...

    • CHAPTER 3 MOBILIZATION BY EXTRACTION
      (pp. 45-66)

      Existing literature has shown that a country’s abundance of natural resources is often associated with pervasive and negative outcomes, such as poor governance, low levels of economic development, civil war, and dictatorship (e.g., Karl 1997; Ross 1999; P. Collier and Hoeffler 2002, 2005; Dunning 2005; Fearon 2005; Humphreys 2005). These results have led some to speak of a “resource curse.” With few exceptions, the bulk of this research has focused on cross-national comparisons, using aggregate national data that, more often than not, conceal significant within-nation heterogeneity and complexity. Moreover, the relationship between a country’s geological endowments and contentious politics has...

  3. PART II. COMPARATIVE CASES

    • CHAPTER 4 LIME WARS
      (pp. 69-83)

      In 1949, the World Bank and the Peruvian government undertook massive investments aimed at the agricultural development of the Tambogrande region. Located on the western coast of Peru in the northern department of Piura, this geographic area was originally known for its arid lands and lack of economic productivity. However, after successfully diverting water from the Quiroz River into the local basin, the irrigation project transformed the Tambogrande region into a very productive agricultural valley. The project underwent numerous stages, with various levels of international and domestic investment, and its benefits are still clear over half a century later. The...

    • CHAPTER 5 MINING MOUNTAINS
      (pp. 84-102)

      Since the turn of the twentieth century, agriculture and mining in the northern region of Cajamarca have coexisted rather peacefully. The region developed an agricultural economy with abundant dairy farms next to several small-scale mining operations, some of which were exploited informally. Starting in the early 1990s and continuing to this day, however, this peaceful coexistence came to a halt with the arrival of the Yanacocha mine. By the late 2000s, the mine had pulled more than nineteen million ounces of gold, worth approximately US $7 billion.¹ The mine is currently the largest gold producer in Latin America and one...

    • CHAPTER 6 BLOOD IN THE JUNGLE
      (pp. 103-118)

      In 2006, the United States and Peru signed a free trade agreement (FTA). The US-Peru FTA came on the heels of several years of macroeconomic stability, the arrival of mega extractive projects like Yanacocha’s gold mine and Camisea’s natural gas project, and last but not least a commodity export boom. The FTA was seen as a protective shield for the economic liberalization policies of the 1990s. The agreement was set to enter into full force in early 2009. To facilitate the conditions laid down in the FTA, the Peruvian Congress, dominated by the alliance between APRA and Fujimori’s AF (Alianza...

  4. CONCLUSION: THE CONSEQUENCES OF MOBILIZATIONS
    (pp. 119-132)

    In contrast to a grievance-centered approach that privileges economic conditions over other explanatory factors, and following contributions from political process theory (Tarrow 1998; Tilly and Tarrow 2006), this book redirects attention to political conditions as central to antimarket mobilizations. These political conditions help us understand the national and subnational dynamics of protest movements across geography and time, as well as the impact of these movements on their environments. At the cross-national level, it emphasizes the moderating role of democracy in shaping societal responses to economic liberalization. It explains how economic liberalization in the context of democracy contributes to what I...

  5. APPENDIX: BASE DE PROTESTAS SOCIALES DEL PERÚ
    (pp. 133-136)