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Research Report

Acacia mangium Willd.: Ecology, silviculture and prodctivity

Haruni Krisnawati
Maarit Kallio
Markku Kanninen
Copyright Date: Jan. 1, 2011
Pages: 26
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. v-v)
    Haruni Krisnawati, Maarit Kallio and Markku Kanninen
  2. (pp. 1-1)

    Acacia mangium Willd., also known as mangium, is one of the most widely used fast-growing tree species in plantation forestry programmes throughout Asia and the Pacific. Its desirable properties include rapid growth, good wood quality and tolerance of a wide range of soils and environments (National Research Council 1983). The recent pressure on natural forest ecosystems in Indonesia inevitably resulted in the use of fast-growing plantation trees, including A. mangium, as a substitute to sustain the commercial supply of tree products. Based on trials of 46 species conducted by the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry in Subanjeriji (South Sumatra), A. mangium...

  3. (pp. 1-3)

    Botanical name: Acacia mangium Willd.

    Family: Leguminoseae

    Subfamily: Mimosoideae

    Synonyms: Rancosperma mangium (Willd.) Pedley

    Vernacular/common names: Common names in Indonesia: mangga hutan, tongke hutan (Ceram), nak (Maluku), laj (Aru), jerri (Irian Jaya) (Turnbull 1986).

    Common names in other countries: black wattle, brown salwood, hickory wattle, mangium, sabah salwood (Australia, England); mangium, kayu SAFODA (Malaysia); arr (Papua New Guinea); maber (Philippines); zamorano (Spain); kra thin tepa, krathin-thepha (Thailand) (Hall et al. 1980, Turnbull 1986).

    Acacia mangium trees are generally large and can grow to a height of 30 m, with a straight bole that may be more than half of the...

  4. (pp. 4-4)

    Acacia mangium starts to flower and produce seeds 18–20 months after planting (National Research Council 1983). The flowering and fruiting seasons differ according to geographical location. For example, in Australia, the major peak of flowering occurs between March and May with fruits maturing from late September to December (Sedgley et al. 1992). In Indonesia, fruits ripen earlier, in July, and in Papua New Guinea they ripen in September (Turnbull 1986). In general, fruits mature 5–7 months after the flowering period (Table 2).

    The fruits are ready for harvesting when they change to dark brown and begin to crack open. Harvesting...

  5. (pp. 4-5)

    Seeds may be sown in seedbeds and transplanted 6–10 days after sowing. However, the recovery rate using this method is only about 37%. Sowing in germination trays and transplanting the seedlings 6–10 days later, when the radicle emerges, leads to more than 85% recovery (Adjers and Srivastava 1993). Another option is direct sowing in containers followed by transplanting to maintain 1 seedling per container. As direct sowing reduces the cost of seedling production and has minimal risk of root deformation, it is commonly preferred by many tree growers (Adjers and Srivastava 1993). This method requires good-quality seeds with a high...

  6. (pp. 5-7)

    Weeding in A. mangium plantations is recommended to remove climbers, creepers and vines, but less harmful weeds can be left in the field to maintain lateral competition. The first weeding should be done 2 months after planting out, according to Udarbe and Hepburn (1987) in Srivastava (1993). The number of follow-up weedings will vary for each site. In areas where Imperata has a strong hold, weeding should be done frequently; for example, the area surrounding each seedling is often cleared at 1.5, 3 and 5 months, and weeds between rows are slashed at the third month (National Research Council 1983)....

  7. (pp. 7-12)

    Information on growth rates of A. mangium trees, in terms of mean diameter and mean height, taken from various sources under different conditions (site, age and spacing), is summarised in Table 3. In general, mean diameter increases fairly rapidly up to 15 cm in stands less than 3 years old. Growth rates slow noticeably after the fifth year, and diameter begins to level off at around 25 cm by the age of 8 years. Height growth shows the same trends as diameter. In the first 2–3 years, height increases moderately up to 10–15 m and then increases sharply up to...