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Research Report

U.S.-Cuban Relations:: An Analytic Compendium of U.S. Policies, Laws & Regulations

Dianne E. Rennack
Mark P. Sullivan
Copyright Date: Mar. 1, 2005
Published by: Atlantic Council
Pages: 370
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. v-vi)
    Henry E. Catto Jr.

    This compendium presents the texts of the U.S. policy statements, laws and regulations (or relevant parts thereof) that govern U.S. relations with Cuba, on both the bilateral and multilateral levels. Preceding each group of documents is an analytic summary, which highlights the context, major provisions and significance of the policies, laws or regulations in question as they relate to U.S.-Cuban relations. At the end is an essay entitled, “Requirements for Normalization”, which discusses how a U.S. government seeking to do so might go about the process of normalizing relations, taking either a comprehensive or incremental approach.

    The documents and analyses...

  2. U.S. Policies, Laws & Regulations

    • (pp. 1-16)

      U.S. policy toward Cuba under the Administration of George W. Bush has essentially continued the two-track policy of past Administrations: isolating the Cuban government through comprehensive economic sanctions while at the same time supporting the Cuban people through such efforts as private humanitarian assistance and U.S. government support for democracy and human rights in Cuba.

      President Bush initially set forth his Cuba policy in two major statements – in May 2001 and May 2002 – both timed to coincide with Cuba’s May 20th Independence Day. The President vowed to oppose attempts to weaken sanctions against Cuba’s government until it undertook...

    • (pp. 17-280)

      Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba has consisted largely of isolating the government of Fidel Castro through comprehensive economic sanctions, including an embargo on trade and financial transactions with Cuba pursuant to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and the Trading with the Enemy Act. These sanctions were made stronger with the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (CDA) (P.L. 102-484, Title XVII) and with the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-114), often referred to as the Helms-Burton legislation after its Congressional sponsors. Among the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act’s most significant provisions...

    • (pp. 281-284)

      U.S. relations with Cuba deteriorated rapidly in the early 1960s as the Castro government espoused communism and aligned itself with the Soviet Union. The Cuban government seized U.S.-owned oil refineries, without compensation, in June 1960; in response in July, the Eisenhower Administration cut Cuba’s remaining 1960 sugar quota. Relations continued to deteriorate in August 1960, when Cuba began to nationalize U.S.-owned companies, and in October 1960, when the United States prohibited most exports to Cuba (with the exception of nonsubsidized food, medicine and medical supplies) and Cuba expropriated remaining U.S.-owned properties.

      On January 3, 1961, the United States officially broke...

    • (pp. 285-300)

      Since the early 1960s, hundreds of thousands of Cubans have migrated to the United States to escape conditions under the government of Fidel Castro. By 1966, some 165,000 Cubans had entered the United States, but did not have an opportunity under U.S. law to adjust to permanent resident status.14 In order to resolve this, Congress enacted the Cuban Refugee Adjustment Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-732), popularly referred to as the Cuban Adjustment Act, which gave Cubans an opportunity to apply for permanent resident status within one year of their arrival in the United States – an opportunity not provided to...

    • (pp. 301-312)

      The U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, has at times been a contentious issue in U.S.-Cuban relations. The 45-square mile base on the southeast coast of Cuba dates back to 1903, making it the oldest U.S. overseas military base. Formal negotiations for the U.S. basing rights began in 1902, after Cuba had attained its independence. Under the so-called Platt Amendment, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1901 and added as an appendix to the Cuban Constitution, the Cuban government agreed to sell or lease to the United States land areas for coaling17 or naval stations, in order “…to enable...

    • (pp. 313-326)

      Radio Marti and TV Marti, U.S. government-sponsored radio and television broadcasting to Cuba, began in 1985 and 1990, respectively. In 1983, Congress approved the establishment of specialized radio broadcasting to Cuba with the passage of the Radio Broadcasting to Cuba Act (P.L. 98-111). According to the legislation, “…there is a need for broadcasts to Cuba which provide news, commentary and other information about events in Cuba and elsewhere to promote the cause of freedom in Cuba.” As a result of the legislation, Radio Marti – named for 19th century Cuban nationalist poet José Marti – began broadcasting to Cuba on...

  3. Requirements for Normalization

    • (pp. 327-332)

      As described in previous chapters, U.S. relations with Cuba are circumscribed by a variety of laws and regulations that restrict the full range of trade, economic linkages and U.S. government assistance to the present Cuban government. For the most part, U.S. policy since the early 1960s has had the aim of isolating the Castro government. For a number of years, U.S. policy has also consisted of measures to support the Cuban people through private humanitarian relief, U.S. government-funded broadcasting to Cuba and support for human rights and democracy activists.

      Future U.S. relations with Cuba will depend to large extent on...