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Research Report


Copyright Date: Oct. 21, 2008
Pages: 42
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 11-11)

    The policy seminar was attended by citizens of 12 of 14 SADC countries; representatives of Angola, the current SADC Chair of the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security; the Foreign Minister of Swaziland, the incoming chair of the SADC Organ; Austria’s Secretary of State for European and International Affairs; the European Union (EU) Representative to the AU; and civil society activists from across southern Africa.

    The primary goal of the Johannesburg seminar was to bring together a group of experts – policymakers, academics and civil society actors – to identify ways of strengthening SADC’s capacity to develop security and development...

  2. (pp. 11-15)

    In recent years, the African Union (AU), its socio-economic programme, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), as well as Africa’s regional economic communities (RECs) – the Southern African Development Community; the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS); the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD); and the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) – have increasingly recognised that peace, security and democratic governance are the preconditions for sustainable development.² The AU’s protocol relating to its 15-member Peace and Security Council – established in 2004 – and the security mechanisms of Africa’s RECs all advocate...

  3. (pp. 16-16)

    The institutional reflection of this trend is evidenced by the AU’s peacekeeping engagements in Burundi, Sudan’s Darfur region and Somalia. Military interventions often require sustained and durable funding, and without UN, EU and other Western funding, the AU and SADC would probably not be able to undertake peacekeeping missions. The AU’s deployment of peacekeepers has exposed the logistical and financial weaknesses of the continent’s security architecture. The development of an African Standby Force by 2010, based on five sub-regional brigades, is an attempt to overcome these shortcomings. Several southern African states have been involved in UN peacekeeping operations, while regional...

  4. (pp. 17-19)

    Over time, the definition of peacebuilding has gradually expanded to refer to integrated approaches to addressing violent conflict at different phases of the conflict cycle. Peacebuilding has become a multifaceted concept that includes the process of rebuilding the political, security, and socio-economic dimensions of societies emerging from conflict. It also involves addressing the root causes of conflicts and promoting social and economic justice, as well as putting in place political structures of governance and the rule of law to help consolidate peacebuilding, reconciliation and development. Concrete peacebuilding efforts involve humanitarian relief; demobilisation, disarmament and reintegration (DDR); as well as long-term...

  5. (pp. 20-21)

    Similarly, the AU policy on gender equality and women’s rights was identified as a useful instrument to measure progress.10 Major challenges remain on gender inequality and, in particular, violence against women, who are particularly vulnerable to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and constitute half of the estimated three million infections in southern Africa. Human trafficking was also seen to be on the increase, with major inroads on this illicit trade yet to be made by SADC member states. Armed conflicts and gender-based violence are proving to be major impediments to the achievement of sustainable development and human security in Africa. Recent conflicts...

  6. (pp. 22-25)

    The term “human security”, first used in a 1994 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, encompasses economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community and political security. The AU’s African Common Defence Pact of 2004 defines human security as the social, political, economic, military and cultural conditions that protect and promote human life and dignity.16 Human security differs from traditional or state-centric security because it places the safety of individuals, rather than the state, at the core of security. This reworking of priorities is not a total denunciation of state-centric security, but represents a more coherent articulation of the state’s...