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Research Report

Partners and neighbours:: a CFSP for a wider Europe

Judy Batt
Dov Lynch
Antonio Missiroli
Martin Ortega
Dimitrios Triantaphyllou
Copyright Date: Sep. 1, 2003
Pages: 174
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 7-8)

    This Chaillot Paper is the product of collegial reflection by the EUISS research team.

    As the current enlargement process moves towards its culmination with the accession of ten new member states in May 2004, its effects are already making themselves felt not only on the internal but also the external policies of the widening Union. New borders and neighbours bring new challenges while reconfiguring old ones. This new reality requires more than just additions to already existing policies. The entire neighbourhood, or proximity, policy of the enlarged EU will have to be reassessed and reformulated.

    First, enlargement itself – for...

  2. (pp. 9-33)
    Antonio Missiroli

    Over the past decades, the European Union has pursued at least two distinct approaches (and policies) towards its immediate neighbourhoods:

    an approach aimed, first and foremost, at stabilisation, mainly based on fostering regional cooperation and broad partnerships (regionalism); and

    an approach (in addition to, or instead of, the above), aimed at integration proper, i.e. at bringing neighbouring countries directly into the EU through a bilateral process based on strict ‘conditionality’.

    Arguably, both approaches are typical of the foreign and security policy of any regional power, and they are also fully legitimate, provided they are carried out with peaceful means. The...

  3. (pp. 34-59)
    Dov Lynch

    The title of this chapter may lead to confusion. A number of caveats must be noted at the outset. First, the discussion will not relate specifically to the proposals put forward by successive Polish governments on the need for an ‘Eastern Dimension’ of the European Union (EU). Those proposals were elaborated in response to Poland’s recognition of an urgent need for Brussels to start considering the particular nature of the states that will adjoin the enlarged EU; that is, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and, eventually, Moldova.

    Second, the chapter will not discuss directly an area of EU policy that is evoked...

  4. (pp. 60-76)
    Dimitrios Triantaphyllou

    As the European Union begins to consider its post-enlargement frontiers through its intention to establish a neighbourhood policy with Russia, the Western Newly Independent States (WNIS) and the southern Mediterranean, it is still struggling to define its relations with the countries of the Western Balkans. While the Commission’s ‘Wider Europe’ Communication of 11 March 2003 focuses on Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and the countries of the southern Mediterranean, it excludes the Western Balkans, which it considers ‘have the perspective of membership of the EU’.¹ From a western Balkan perspective, the prospect of EU membership is not as clear-cut as the Union...

  5. (pp. 77-85)
    Dimitrios Triantaphyllou

    The story of Turkey and the European Union is akin to the myths of Sisyphus and Tantalus: it is difficult to distinguish who is who. Like Sisyphus, the European Union is unable to date to carry the weight of its own ambitions because the EU as a concert of 15/25 nation-states does not know what these are. The same applies to Turkey, which constantly stalls its European projects due to the burden of its domestic political and institutional soul-searching. Like Tantalus, the EU as a model of peace, security and prosperity tempts Turkey, while Turkey tempts the EU with its...

  6. (pp. 86-101)
    Martin Ortega

    The Mediterranean region is a vast zone that is very different from other regions bordering the EU. Firstly, the countries situated to the south and east of the Mediterranean Sea belong not to Europe but to two other continents: Africa and Asia. Even if the sea has not prevented fruitful exchanges and both peaceful and bellicose relations between the north and the south for centuries, today the Mediterranean de facto separates two worlds that are different socially, economically and politically. Secondly, the south and east of the Mediterranean form a zone of instability and conflict on a scale no longer...

  7. (pp. 102-118)
    Judy Batt

    EU enlargement has over the past decade proceeded in parallel with increasing concern among the member states about the management of the Union’s external borders. The two are of course closely connected: it was the breakdown of communist regimes that removed the draconian controls they had maintained on the western borders of the Soviet bloc, thus opening the way to the reunification of Europe. The breach in the Berlin Wall in November 1989 symbolised this perfectly. But the early enthusiasm with which Western Europe responded to those extraordinary events rapidly gave way to mounting apprehension, prompted by fears of uncontrolled...

  8. (pp. 119-128)

    Clearly, the EU continues to have powerful attractions for all its neighbours. It has, after all, been a success story, and others want to share in that. But the EU is already showing signs of ‘enlargement fatigue’, and some within the existing member states fear a ‘dilution’ of the achievements reached so far. Enlargement has undeniably been the Union’s most successful foreign policy instrument. It has been the main motor of the massive political and economic transformations that have taken place in Central and Eastern Europe since the early 1990s. That motor could falter if the internal dynamism of an...