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Research Report


Pierre De Vestel
Copyright Date: Nov. 1, 1995
Pages: 84
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. None)

    To those in favour of the integration and rationalisation of defence markets in Europe, the adoption of the Single European Act, the end of the Cold War and the renewal of the process of European integration seemed to offer new, promising prospects. The process of integration had re-echoed as a recurring theme since the failure of the European Defence Community and the more than disappointing results of numerous attempts at equipment harmonisation or the organisation of a European defence pillar. Yet despite these promises, little progress has been made and ‘Europessimism’ seems to have set in. However, at the same...

  2. (pp. None)

    In 1945 the complex European (non-)security system, which was based on the autonomy of the nation-state, finally collapsed and was overlaid by the two superpowers.(⁴) The East-West confrontation has contributed in large measure to reducing European governments’ room for manuvre in security and defence issues. Some authors use the image of a Europe over which a blanket had been thrown. That ‘overlay’, which existed for more than forty years, has now almost completely disappeared. The first step, if one wishes to address the question of the future of European security, is to identify the characteristics that have managed to subsist,...

  3. (pp. None)

    By `civilianisation' is meant the adoption by the defence industry of characteristics similar to those of industry in general.(24)

    The European defence industry is undergoing a far-reaching process of adaptation that goes beyond a mere reduction in its activities, because the economic and political context in which the industries are developing has changed. Four main developments can be distinguished. First, there is the process of internationalisation of defence industries, which has widened the traditional national framework in which companies developed. Defence markets (transactions between manufacturers and buyers) have in a number of countries been affected by the influence of freer...

  4. (pp. None)

    The wish to integrate the European defence industries and markets in some way or other has been voiced regularly since the early 1950s. The project to create a European Defence Community, if it had been successful, would among other things have led to a joint programme of arms procurement. Following the failure of the EDC, various initiatives were taken within WEU, NATO and the IEPG. The European Parliament and Commission have also made proposals. In 1991, during the negotiations on the Treaty on European Union, the French and German governments reopened the debate on a European Armaments Agency.

    Today, the...

  5. (pp. None)

    Having summarised the main trends affecting the markets, industry and the process of integration, which provide a framework of reference, in this chapter four scenarios will first be examined and excluded as unlikely. In the first, an attempt is made to depict the progress (or lack of it) that might result from a continuation of the status quo. The second, a federal Europe, on the contrary implies an assertion of political will. The third and fourth scenarios, in which Europe follows either the French or British models, are based on the natural tendency of dominant countries to extend their own...

  6. (pp. None)

    Fifty years after the end of the Second World War, years which have in particular seen the reconstruction of national defence industrial and technological bases in Europe, several conclusions can be drawn. First, it can be confirmed that the national framework persists as the main point of reference for the constitution and maintenance of a defence industrial and technological base. The national dimension is preponderant but it has had to adapt. Obliged to cooperate, faced with the globalisation of the economy in general and the internationalisation of defence industries in particular, influenced by the dominant economic ideology and, lastly, grappling...