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Research Report

Pioneering foreign policy: The EU Special Representatives

Giovanni Grevi
Copyright Date: Oct. 1, 2007
Pages: 165
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 9-14)

    The European Union is in the process of developing a common foreign and security policy. This requires three essential ingredients. First, the progressive convergence of the foreign policies of its Member States. Second, the institutional framework required to foster the process of convergence with adequate input and expertise, and to enable effective decision-making. Third, the instruments to implement the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) abroad, including the representation of the Union in third countries, the participation in multilateral frameworks, and crisis management. Adequate resources, including diplomatic ones, are necessary to enable progress at the political, institutional and operational level,...

  2. (pp. 15-28)

    This chapter addresses the legal, budgetary and administrative profiles of the function of EU Special Representative. The analysis of the legal status of the EUSRs, of funding arrangements and of relevant administrative provisions, addresses the conditions that enable Special Representatives to implement their substantive mandate. This review shows some progress towards the consolidation of this instrument, in order to make it more effective. A sharper definition of the EUSRs’ mandates, tighter rules for reporting, the development of an administrative toolkit to get the EUSRs up and running, and the expansion of their budgetary resources, reflect this overall trend. The successive...

  3. (pp. 29-40)

    EU Special Representatives are one element of a broader institutional and policy framework. This chapter is dedicated to the institutional environment where EUSRs operate, with a focus on the main features of policy-making under CFSP/ESDP. The basic argument here is that the deepening of the institutional foundations of CFSP and the evolution of the instrument of EU Special Representatives carry mutual implications. Before addressing the main substantive tasks fulfilled by the EUSRs, presented in Chapter Three, it seems useful to illustrate how they fit into the machinery of CFSP and, more specifically, ESDP. As such, Chapters Two and Three should...

  4. (pp. 41-50)

    EU Special Representatives are appointed because there is a problem that needs urgent addressing. This short formulation hides, of course, a more complex process. First, in a Union of 27, there needs to be a collective agreement that a given crisis poses a problem for the EU. Second, even if it does, some may feel that the EU is not the best-positioned actor to intervene. Third, if there is consensus that the EU should play a role, there comes the biggest challenge, namely the definition of a common policy. This is a vital step in terms of the function and...

  5. (pp. 51-62)

    1. The mandate of the EUSR shall be based on the policy objectives of the European Union in the South Caucasus. These objectives include:

    (a) to assist Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in carrying out political and economic reforms, notably in the fields of rule of law, democratisation, human rights, good governance, development and poverty reduction;

    (b) in accordance with existing mechanisms, to prevent conflicts in the region, to contribute to the peaceful settlement of conflicts, including through promoting the return of refugees and internally displaced persons;

    (c) to engage constructively with main interested actors concerning the region;

    (d) to encourage and...

  6. (pp. 63-70)

    1. The EUSR’s mandate shall be based on the European Union’s policy objectives in the Republic of Moldova. These objectives include:

    (a) to contribute to a peaceful settlement of the Transnistria conflict and to the implementation of such a settlement on the basis of a viable solution, respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Moldova within its internationally recognised borders;

    (b) to contribute to the strengthening of democracy, rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all citizens of the Republic of Moldova;

    (c) to promote good and close relations between the Republic of...

  7. (pp. 71-78)

    The mandate of the EUSR shall be based on the policy objectives of the European Union in Afghanistan. In particular the EUSR shall:

    1. contribute to the implementation of the EU-Afghanistan Joint Declaration and the Afghanistan Compact as well as the relevant United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolutions and other relevant UN Resolutions;

    2. encourage positive contributions from regional actors in Afghanistan and from neighbouring countries to the peace process in Afghanistan and thereby contribute to the consolidation of the Afghan state;

    3. support the pivotal role played by the UN, notably the Special Representative of the Secretary-General; and work of the...

  8. (pp. 79-90)

    The mandate of the EUSR shall be based on the policy objectives of the EU in BiH. These centre around continued progress in the implementation of the General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFAP) in BiH, in accordance with the Office of the High Representative’s Mission Implementation Plan, and in the Stabilisation and Association Process, with the aim of a stable, viable, peaceful and multiethnic BiH, cooperating peacefully with its neighbours and irreversibly on track towards EU membership.

    In order to achieve the policy objectives of the EU in BiH, the mandate of the EUSR shall be to:

    (a) offer the...

  9. (pp. 91-98)

    The mandate of the EUSR shall be based on the policy objective of the European Union in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, which shall be to contribute to the consolidation of the peaceful political process and the full implementation of the Ohrid Framework Agreement, thereby facilitating further progress towards European integration through the Stabilisation and Association Process.

    The EUSR shall support the work of the Secretary-General/High Representative (SG/HR) in the region.

    In order to achieve the policy objective, the mandate of the EUSR shall be to:

    (a) maintain close contact with the Government of the former Yugoslav Republic of...

  10. (pp. 99-108)

    The mandate of the EUSR shall be based on the policy objectives of the European Union in Sudan, notably as regards:

    (a) efforts, as part of the international community and in support of the African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN), to assist the Sudanese parties, the AU and the UN to achieve a political settlement of the conflict in Darfur, including through the implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) and to facilitate the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and promote South-South dialogue, as well as facilitating the implementation of the Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement (ESPA),...

  11. (pp. 109-118)

    The mandate of the EUSR shall be based on the policy objectives of the European Union regarding the further stabilization and consolidation of the post-conflict situation in the African Great Lakes Region, paying particular attention to the regional dimension of the developments in the countries concerned. Promoting, in particular, compliance with the basic norms of democracy and good governance, including respect for human rights and the rule of law, these objectives include:

    (a) active and effective contribution to a consistent, sustainable and responsible policy of the European Union in the African Great Lakes Region, promoting a coherent overall European Union...

  12. (pp. 119-128)

    The EUSR’s mandate shall be based on the Union’s policy objectives in Central Asia. These objectives include:

    (a) promoting good and close relations between countries of Central Asia and the European Union on the basis of common values and interests as set out in relevant agreements;

    (b) contributing to strengthening the stability and cooperation between the countries in the region;

    (c) contributing to strengthening of democracy, rule of law, good governance and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in Central Asia;

    (d) addressing key threats, especially specific problems with direct implications for Europe;

    (e) enhancing the European Union’s effectiveness...

  13. (pp. 129-140)

    1. The mandate of the EUSR shall be based on the policy objectives of the European Union regarding the Middle East peace process.

    2. These objectives include:

    (a) a two-State solution with Israel and a democratic, viable, peaceful and sovereign Palestinian State living side by side within secure and recognised borders enjoying normal relations with their neighbours in accordance with United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolutions 242 (1967), 338 (1973), 1397 (2002) and 1402 (2002) and the principles of the Madrid conference;

    (b) solution in the Israeli-Syrian and Israeli-Lebanese tracks;

    (c) a fair solution to the complex issue of Jerusalem and a...

  14. (pp. 141-156)

    The review of the activities of the nine EU Special Representatives suggests that they provide a valuable contribution to foreign policy making and crisis management at the European level. As provided for in the TEU, Special Representatives are appointed with a mandate in relation to a particular policy issue. In other words, they are deployed when there is a problem which needs addressing by the EU, in a context of crisis prevention, conflict settlement and postconflict stabilisation. That said, the mandates of the EUSRs have been expanding to cover broader political issues than the solution to specific crises, including advice...