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Research Report


Yves Boyer
Christophe Carle
Joachim Krause
Harald Müller
Geoffrey Van Orden
Paul Cornish
Peter van Ham
Joachim Krause
Copyright Date: May. 1, 1996
Pages: 50
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. None)
    Paul Cornish, Peter van Ham and Joachim Krause

    With the end of the Cold War, concerns about the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their means of delivery have increased considerably. Concerns have been caused principally by the recent experiences with Iraq and North Korea, and, following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, by the smuggling of fissile material and the spread of nuclear weapons technology and know-how. The protracted negotiations over a successor regime to COCOM, which have so far only led to the non-committal Wassenaar Arrangement, also highlight the difficulty of finding a balance between security and commercial concerns.

    This Chaillot Paper focuses on...

  2. (pp. None)
    Joachim Krause

    In the many recent debates on a common European defence policy, more time and resources have been devoted to questions of principles, institutional arrangements and organizational reforms than to the issue of risks, threats and contingencies.Coping with risks, threats and contingencies, however, is the main substance of security and defence policy, and demonstrating an ability to cope with certain risks, threats or contingencies is usually the best way of gaining public support for security and defence policy.

    Risks associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction have usually been defined by US authors or by US authorities. Some of...

  3. (pp. None)
    Yves Boyer

    The risks and challenges that the proliferation of conventional arms or dual-use technologies present for Europe can be considered in different ways, depending on whether one seeks to underline either a military threat that might result from the acquisition of sensitive technologies by states that are potentially hostile, or an economic threat to European high-technology industries as a result of the introduction of strict rules governing the spread of dual-use technologies.

    A first approach is thus to stress the instability that could result from a regional imbalance of force caused by an accumulation of conventional weapons. If it led to...

  4. (pp. None)
    Harald Müller

    This chapter addresses the issue of the European Union‘s nuclear non-proliferation policy exclusively. There are three reasons for this focus. First, nuclear proliferation would present the most ominous threat to world stability and European security. Second, European security in this field is farther developed than in other areas, having a first foundation in the treaties establishing the European Communities and an active history of fifteen years since the creation of the non-proliferation working group under the auspices of European Political Cooperation (EPC). And third, it is by far the most difficult area, one in which the Europeans are obliged to...

  5. (pp. None)
    Christophe Carle

    Non-proliferation objectives have become increasingly prominent aspects of foreign and defence policies over the last decade. The aim of preventing, capping or reversing the spread of sensitive weapons and technologies appears at all levels of policymaking, be it national, regional or global, in organizations such as the UN, NATO, the OSCE or WEU, as well as in numerous other non-European bodies and forums such as the Non-Aligned Movement or the Middle East Arms Control and Regional Security talks. The European Union is no exception in this regard, and its member states, both individually and collectively, attach growing importance to non-proliferation...

  6. (pp. None)
    Geoffrey Van Orden

    European export controls on conventional arms serve many purposes. They may be seen as non-proliferation mechanisms; as assisting the competitiveness of a sector of European industry; contributing to European harmonisation, thereby facilitating the process of closer integration of the European Union; or as a direct response to humanitarian concerns. In any case, the European Community has an internal dynamic and the creation of a single European market on 1 January 1993 necessitated revision of the rules for intra-European transfer of arms.

    At a time when there is no agreed European political strategy or common policy underlying the development of arms...