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Research Report

From Nice to Laeken: European defence: core documents

compiled by Maartje Rutten
Copyright Date: Apr. 1, 2002
Pages: 216
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. ix-xii)
    Maartje Rutten

    This Chaillot Paper is the second in our series of core documents on European security and defence. Unlike the first volume, which covered the whole period from St-Malo to Nice (December 1998 - December 2001), this volume and subsequent ones will recapitulate developments in European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) during the preceding year. As the whole world of defence and thus Europe and the ESDP were profoundly affected by the terrorist attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001, we have divided this Chaillot Paper into two parts. The first comprises documents on the further development and implementation...

  2. I ESDP

    • (pp. 1-3)

      Compared with the fast pace of developments in the period ‘St-Malo to Nice’, 2001 certainly got off to a much slower start regarding the further development and implementation of the ESDP. However, a few meetings in the period from 1 January 2001 till the above-mentioned meeting deserve mention, even though no official documents were produced by them. The first PSC-NAC meeting took place on 5 February 2001, after the GAC agreed on 22 January to hold these joint meetings at least three times every six months. On 9 February 2001, at the Franco-British summit at Cahors, the French and British...

    • (pp. 4-6)

      The Minister of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Minister of Defence of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

      convinced that in support of the Defence Capabilities Initiative and the European Headline Goal European Allies need to develop innovative, efficient and more effective approaches in order to overcome capability shortfalls,

      resolved to strengthen European capabilities, in particular in the area of strategic airlift, using a collective approach,

      intending to support efforts among European Nations to establish a pool of European strategic airlift capabilities,

      confident that the present initiative, which enables the Netherlands to call upon Germany to facilitate...

    • (pp. 7-10)

      The first formal meeting of EU and NATO foreign ministers was held in the margins of NATO’s Budapest summit. This meeting was devoted almost entirely to solving Turkey’s blocking of EU use of NATO assets, unfortunately to no avail. The following is an extract of the NATO Budapest Declaration concerning EU-NATO relations.

      39. We took stock of the progress made to date on the development of the European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) in accordance with the decisions taken at the Washington Summit and subsequent Ministerial meetings. We reaffirmed our determination to reinforce NATO’s European pillar and remain committed to a...

    • (pp. 11-12)

      Rapid troop transport is one of the major deficiencies among European capabilities. Following an earlier German proposal, on 7 June 2001, a Declaration of Intent, which is reproduced below, was signed aimed at coordination and rationalisation of troop transport. The technical agreement on the creation of the European Air Transport Coordination Cell (EACC) is being worked out and was due to be signed on 28 February 2002, during the official inauguration of the cell.

      Following the formal accession of the Federal Republic of Germany to the European Air Group (EAG) earlier this year, the Chief of Staff German Air Force,...

    • (pp. 13-18)

      Monsieur le ministre,

      Messieurs les ambassadeurs,

      Messieurs les parlementaires,

      Mesdames et messieurs les officiers généraux,

      Mesdames et messieurs,

      As you know, this latter issue has just been placed at the core of the strategic debate through the proposals of our US allies. We do not refute the dangers of ballistic proliferation, although our analysis differs as to the scale of the threat and how it might evolve over time. There can be no single answer to this problem which should be viewed within a broader debate on new security requirements. This debate is under way and the forthcoming NATO Summit...

    • (pp. 19-19)

      The Military Committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the Military Committee of the European Union met today for the first time. The meeting was held at NATO Headquarters.

      The meeting was convened following recent guidance provided by the North Atlantic Council and the European Council. It reflects inter alia that:

      The EU and NATO have undertaken to further strengthen and develop their co-operation in military crisis management on the basis of shared values, equality and in a spirit of partnership.

      Arrangements and modalities for the relationship between the EU and NATO will reflect the fact that each organisation...

    • (pp. 20-21)

      1. La France et l’Allemagne réaffirment leur détermination à faire rapidement progresser la politique européenne de sécurité et de défense afin que l’Union européenne puisse pleinement jouer son rôle sur la scène internationale. L’Union européenne doit pouvoir disposer de tout l’éventail des instruments civils et militaires de prévention et de gestion des crises. Le développement équilibré de capacités militaires et civiles confère à l’UE son caractère spécifique dans le domaine de la gestion des crises. La France et l’Allemagne se concerteront étroitement sur les prochaines étapes afin que l’Union européenne soit rapidement opérationnelle. Conformément à l’objectif fixé à Nice, une décision...

    • (pp. 22-23)

      Amid concerns that the two sides of the Atlantic are drifting apart, today’s EU-US summit in Gothenburg offers an opportunity to demonstrate the depth, resilience and adaptability of the transatlantic link.

      A change in US administration always means a new chapter in the relationship. And it is true that a number of issues have created divisions and misgivings in recent months. They include recurrent trade irritants, Americas rejection of the Kyoto protocol on global warming, the US’s plans for missile defence, and uncertainty about continued US engagement in the Balkans. But the much-touted rift in transatlantic relations is more rhetorical...

    • (pp. 24-29)

      Thank you very much. Mr. President, thank you very much for your gracious hospitality that you and your wife have shown Laura and me. Mr. Prime Minister, members of the government, distinguished members of the clergy, distinguished citizens, and this important friend of America, students, Mr. Rector, thank you very much for your warm greeting.

      It’s a great honor for me to visit this great city – a city that breathes with the confidence, creativity and success of modern Poland.

      Like all nations, Poland still faces challenges. But I am confident you’ll meet them with the same optimistic spirit a...

    • (pp. 30-68)

      On 14 June 2001 US President George W. Bush visited Göteborg, where he met EU heads of state and government participating in the European Council. This was the first EU-US summit since the new Administration had taken office, although no official document resulted from it. On 15 June the European Council commenced.

      47. The European Union is committed to developing and refining its capabilities, structures and procedures in order to improve its ability to undertake the full range of conflict prevention and crisis management tasks, making use of military and civilian means. As reflected in the Presidency report and its annexes...

    • (pp. 69-69)

      In accordance with its Marseille Declaration, WEU assumed a reconfigured status on 1 July 2001, retaining a residual secretariat in Brussels. The last meeting of the WEU Council prior to that date was held on 28 June. The minutes of that meeting are classified; an extract of a reply by the WEU Council to a written question put by WEU parliamentary assembly member Mr Martinez-Casan relating to the changes in WEU, which were discussed at that meeting, is reproduced below.

      On 28 June during the 1352nd meeting of the Council of the Western European Union the Secretary-General stated the following...

    • (pp. 70-75)

      Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,


      (1) On 10 November 2000 the Council recorded its agreement in principle on the setting up of an Institute for Security Studies incorporating the relevant features of the existing Western European Union (WEU) structures.

      (2) The establishment of an Institute for Security Studies within the European Union will assist the implementation of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and in particular of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP).

      (3) The statute and structure of the Institute should enable it to respond to the...

    • (pp. 76-85)

      Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 14 thereof,


      (1) On 10 November 2000 the Council recorded its agreement in principle on the setting up of a Satellite Centre within the European Union, incorporating the relevant features of the existing Western European Union (WEU) structures

      (2) The establishment of a European Union Satellite Centre is essential for strengthening early warning and crisis monitoring functions within the context of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and in particular of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP).

      (3) The statute and structure of the Centre...

    • (pp. 86-91)

      Since the Treaty of Amsterdam, the EU Council has prepared an annual report on the main aspects and basic choices of the CFSP, including the financial implications. The EP reacts with its own annual report, presented by the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Human Rights, Common Security and Defence Policy. The following report was adopted by the Parliament on 25 October 2001. According to the Treaty on European Union, however, the ESDP is not subject to any scrutiny or formal approval by the European Parliament.

      The European Parliament,

      – having regard to the 2000 annual report from the...

    • (pp. 92-94)

      1. Successive European Councils have reaffirmed their commitment to developing the civil and military resources and capabilities required to enable the Union to take and implement decisions on the full range of conflict prevention and crisis management missions defined in the Treaty on European Union, the so-called “Petersberg tasks”. The Union will thus be able to make a greater contribution to international security in keeping with the principles of the United Nations Charter and the Helsinki Final Act. The Union recognises the primary responsibility of the United Nations Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security.

      2. In the field...

    • (pp. 95-102)

      On 11-12 October 2001 another informal meeting of EU defence ministers was held in preparation for the forthcoming Capability Improvement Conference. A Dutch proposal for an Action Plan to remedy shortcomings was presented on that occasion. Other topics discussed were a capabilities review system, the possible establishment of a formal Defence Ministers’ Council, the drawing up of a European defence ‘White Paper’, funding, the accommodation of Turkey in ESDP plans and increased collaboration, including the exchange of intelligence, in the fight against terrorism and the direction of the ESDP following the events of 11 September 2001. One month later a...

    • (pp. 103-107)

      La France et l’Allemagne rappellent solennellement leur solidarité avec leur allié américain, victime des tragiques attentats du 11 septembre, et leur détermination, avec l’ensemble de leurs alliés et de leurs partenaires européens, à poursuivre, sur la base des résolutions du Conseil de sécurité, la lutte contre le terrorisme international, qui constitue une menace pour nous tous.

      Dans ce contexte, le renforcement de la capacité d’action internationale de l’Union européenne est plus urgent que jamais. A cette fin, il est indispensable d’accélérer résolument la mise en oeuvre de la politique européenne de sécurité et de défense. La PESD, grâce aux capacités...

    • (pp. 108-109)

      The United Kingdom and France note with deep satisfaction the progress made in ESDP since their Summit in St Malo, in particular towards the development of civil and military capabilities, the setting up of structures and procedures and the permanent arrangements with NATO. They look forward to the European Council in Laeken, which in conformity with the engagements made in Nice will enable the EU to conduct some crisis management operations. The Union will be in a position to take on progressively more demanding operations as the assets and capabilities at its disposal continue to develop.

      In this perspective, the...

    • (pp. 110-140)

      3. Following the conclusions adopted in Nice, the European Council adopted the declaration set out in Annex I. That declaration and the prospects it opens mark a decisive step for the citizen towards a simpler Union, one that is stronger in the pursuit of its essential objectives and more definitely present in the world. In order to ensure that preparation for the forthcoming Intergovernmental Conference is as broadly-based and transparent as possible, the European Council has decided to convene a Convention, with Mr V. Giscard d’Estaing as President and Mr G. Amato and Mr J.L. Dehaene as Vice-Presidents. All the candidate...


    • (pp. 143-144)

      ‘Appalled’, was the first EU reaction to the barbaric terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001. There was complete consensus within the EU on solidarity with the United States, denouncing terrorism, and the need for support and action in countering and tackling it. Dozens of meetings were held, visits made, statements issued and reports adopted every month following the attacks, of which, in our view, the documents most relevant to the goal of this Chaillot Paper follow in this section. As suggested in the Introduction, the effects of 11 September on the ESDP remain subject to debate....

    • (pp. 145-146)

      Terrorism is the scourge of our times. None of us is immune. The attacks carried out in New York and Washington show that its perpetrators have plumbed new depths. They resort to violent acts because they reject the values of the civilised world: the rule of law, democracy, an open society and freedom. It is a terrible irony that the more open a society, the more exposed it is to such acts. But we cannot renounce those values; to do so would be giving in to the terrorist.

      More than once in recent history the US has come to the...

    • (pp. 147-148)

      In Europe, and around the world, the horrific terrorist attacks on the United States have shocked our citizens. As an expression of solidarity with the American people, Europe has declared 14 September a day of mourning. We invite all European citizens to observe, at noon, a three-minute silence to express our sincere and deepest sympathy for the victims and their families.

      On 12 September, the European Union condemned the perpetrators, organisers and sponsors of these terrorist attacks in the strongest possible terms. The European Union announced that it would make every possible effort to ensure that those responsible for these...

    • (pp. 149-149)

      On 20 September 2001 the EU Troika, composed of the Belgian Foreign Minister, Louis Michel, representing the EU Presidency, the High Representative for CFSP, Javier Solana, and EU External Relations Commissioner, Chris Patten, visited Washington for a meeting with Secretary of State Colin Powell, in the context of their effort to eliminate international terrorism. A joint statement was issued by them following this meeting

      In the coming days, weeks and months, the United States and the European Union will work in partnership in a broad coalition to combat the evil of terrorism. We will act jointly to expand and improve...

    • (pp. 150-154)

      The European Council met in extraordinary session on 21 September 2001 in order to analyse the international situation following the terrorist attacks in the United States and to impart the necessary impetus to the actions of the European Union.

      Terrorism is a real challenge to the world and to Europe. The European Council has decided that the fight against terrorism will, more than ever, be a priority objective of the European Union.

      Moreover, the European Union categorically rejects any equation of groups of fanatical terrorists with the Arab and Muslim world.

      The European Council reaffirms its firm determination to act...

    • (pp. 155-155)

      Following its decision to invoke Article 5 of the Washington Treaty in the wake of the 11 September attacks against the United States, the NATO Allies agreed today – at the request of the United States – to take eight measures, individually and collectively, to expand the options available in the campaign against terrorism. Specifically, they agreed to:

      enhance intelligence sharing and co-operation, both bilaterally and in the appropriate NATO bodies, relating to the threats posed by terrorism and the actions to be taken against it;

      assistance to Allies and other states which are or may be subject to increased...

    • (pp. 156-157)

      The informal meeting of defence ministers held on 12 October 2001, called by the Belgian EU Presidency, was originally aimed at preparing the forthcoming Capabilities Improvement Conference but the discussions were actually dominated by the terrorist attacks of 11 September. Spain suggested that the fight against terrorism be included as an ESDP mission. No consensus was reached, however, on the question whether the Petersberg Tasks should be modified in the light of terrorism. Also, the French proposal for increased national spending on the ESDP and improved capabilities in the wake of the terrorist attacks was rejected.

      – Now more than...

    • (pp. 158-160)

      1. The European Union declares its total solidarity with the United States, with which it shares the objectives of combating terrorism. It reiterates the importance of its close consultations with the United States. It confirms its wholehearted support for the action taken in the context of legitimate defence and in accordance with the UN Charter and UN Security Council Resolution 1368.

      2. The Council reiterated the importance of a multilateral and global approach under United Nations aegis in order to strengthen the international coalition in its fight against terrorism in all its aspects. The Union will act with determination within the United...

    • (pp. 161-185)

      The European Council again unequivocally states its full support for the action being taken against terrorism in all its aspects within the framework defined by the United Nations and reaffirms its total solidarity with the United States.

      1. The European Council has taken note of the reports by the President of the General Affairs Council. It attaches particular importance to information, consultation and coordination with the United States.

      The European Council confirms its staunchest support for the military operations which began on 7 October and which are legitimate under the terms of the United Nations Charter and of Resolution 1368 of...

    • (pp. 186-191)

      1. Few events have galvanised the international system into action so completely in so short a time as the horrific attacks of 11 September in the United States. In the immediate aftermath, the Union expressed its full solidarity with the United States and its support for the action, including military action, which it was taking. The fight against terrorism is more than ever a major policy objective of the European Union

      2. At its extraordinary meeting in Brussels on 21 September, the European Council underscored its firm determination to act in concert in all circumstances and agreed a coordinated and comprehensive Action...

    • (pp. 192-198)

      Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Articles 15 and 34 thereof,

      Whereas: (1) At its extraordinary meeting on 21 September 2001, the European Council declared that terrorism is a real challenge to the world and to Europe and that the fight against terrorism will be a priority objective of the European Union.

      (2) On 28 September 2001, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1373(2001), reaffirming that terrorist acts constitute a threat to peace and security and setting out measures aimed at combating terrorism and in particular the fight against the financing of terrorism and...