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Research Report


François Heisbourg
contributions by Nicole Gnesotto
contributions by Charles Grant
contributions by Karl Kaiser
contributions by Andrzej Karkoszka
contributions by Tomas Ries
contributions by Maartje Rutten
contributions by Stefano Silvestri
contributions by Alvaro Vasconcelos
contributions by Rob de Wijk
Copyright Date: Sep. 1, 2000
Pages: 133
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. viii-viii)
    François Heisbourg

    Before examining the options contained in this paper, a few words of explanation on the various contributions it contains. I assume overall responsibility for the paper: its structure, the reasoning, the options put forward and any sins of omission or commission are attributable to me alone. However, a large part of the expertise contained in this paper, as well as many innovative supporting concepts, are due to the various contributors listed on pages 117-120. Although their individual contributions have been merged into a single text, they represent a considerable added value attributable to the authors mentioned at the beginning of...

  2. (pp. 1-12)

    In the French publishing world, it is sometimes argued that there are two ‘killer’ words which should not on any account be used in the title of any work that has even modest commercial ambitions: ‘Europe’ (or its variation ‘European’) on the one hand, ‘defence’ on the other. The first conjures up images of death through technocratic boredom, while the second, at least since the end of the Cold War, has had an quality far removed not only from the day-to-day concerns of most citizens (and readers) but also from the concrete horrors of actual war. Using these two words...

  3. (pp. 13-32)
    Tomas Ries and Alvaro Vasconcelos

    Over the centuries, Europe has been the cockpit of contending strategies, not the seat of a unified strategic vision, in so far as no single part of Europe has been able to impose its views on the other parts. For the first time since Charlemagne, it has now become possible to at least raise the prospect of a European-wide strategy – and in contradistinction to that imperial, 1,200- year-old precedent, such a vision may flow not from hegemonic ambitions, but from a sui generis convergence or melding of interests and ambitions of EU members. However, this unprecedented prospect is still...

  4. (pp. 33-44)
    Nicole Gnesotto and Karl Kaiser

    This chapter draws largely on contributions by Nicole Gnesotto and Karl Kaiser

    The strategic positioning of EDP vis-à-vis transatlantic commitments is far from obvious: as in other areas related to Europe’s strategic ambitions, there is a broad spectrum of actual, and even more so of potential, types of interaction between European defence and the transatlantic defence community.

    At one end of the spectrum lies European defence outside of the transatlantic framework: at its most extreme, a purely European defence compact operating independently of or in the absence of a US defence commitment in Western Europe. This ‘Europe alone’ vision, which...

  5. (pp. 45-56)
    Stefano Silvestri and Andrzej Karkoszka

    This chapter draws largely on contributions by Stefano Silvestri and Andrzej Karkoszka

    In examining the duplication issue, two preliminary points deserve to be made. First, duplication is not a specifically transatlantic issue. While there may be actual or potential cases of duplication between the Europeans and the Americans, or between NATO and the new EU defence endeavours, there is at least as much duplication between the EU members themselves. Aspects of this are discussed in Chapter VI. Duplication is a European as well as a transatlantic problem, and for this reason alone the Europeans would be well advised to take...

  6. (pp. 57-72)
    Charles Grant

    This chapter draws largely on a contribution by Charles Grant

    One of the areas in which the US-European relationship may face some of the most difficult choices in future is strategic intelligence, which has an impact on security and defence policy just as it does on foreign policy.

    The US-British relationship in this field is crucial, both because it lies at the heart of the ‘special relationship’ between Washington and London and because, as we have seen, sustained and energetic British involvement will remain essential to the effectiveness of EDP, however it is defined. In other words, it is necessary...

  7. (pp. 73-92)
    Rob de Wijk and Maartje Rutten

    This chapter draws heavily on contributions by Rob de Wijk and Maartje Rutten

    The military focus of the St-Malo process is on the improvement of European defence capabilities. There was therefore a prima facie case for setting a headline force goal early on. It will be argued in the following chapter that such an approach imposes constraints, not least the probability that the force goals will not be readily met without upstream commitments as to the means (the input criteria) needed to attain them. None the less, an approach focused on output has much to commend it at this stage...

  8. (pp. 93-108)

    There are several reasons which make it necessary to introduce ‘input indicators’, sometimes called ‘ex ante criteria’ or, more robustly, ‘convergence criteria’, into EDP.

    First, the EU has been rather successful in this kind of approach. This does not mean that it would necessarily apply to defence, as it has in trade policy or monetary union, but it is not unreasonable to play to an institution’s known strengths.

    The EU’s comparative advantage is in the upstream form of consensus on long-term policies implying measurable step-by-step progress towards a goal for which the means (and not simply the objective) are defined....

  9. (pp. 109-116)

    As the preceding chapters demonstrate, the tasks which confront the European Union in the field of defence are numerous and often burdensome. They call for substantial efforts in all areas relevant to EDP:

    fostering strategic and doctrinal convergence in a manner which is congruent with the development of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy;

    moving EDP forward while maintaining, rather than weakening, the transatlantic relationship;

    generating force capabilities relevant to the challenges of the post-Cold War era, not least the Helsinki ‘headline goal’;

    mobilising the necessary financial and technological inputs through both a restructuring of defence spending patterns and...

  10. (pp. 117-120)

    Nicole Gnesotto has been Director of the WEU Institute for Security Studies since 1 October 1999. She was previously Professor at the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris and Special Adviser to the Director of the Institut français des Relations internationales (IFRI), dealing with European security and transatlantic issues. Nicole Gnesotto was Deputy Head of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs Policy Planning Staff from 1987 to 1990 and subsequently a research fellow at the WEU Institute for Security Studies from 1990 to 1993. She was educated at the Ecole Normale Supérieure and has an agrégation in French Literature. Latest publications...