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Research Report

Promoting security sector governance in the EU’s neighbourhood

Heiner Hänggi
Fred Tanner
Copyright Date: Jul. 1, 2005
Pages: 108
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Table of Contents

  1. (pp. 7-10)

    With the European Union’s enlargement eastwards and southwards, its neighbourhood now stretches from the Balkans to the south Caucasus, and from Russia to the southern Mediterranean. The EU’s eastern and southern neighbourhood is composed of areas which, to a greater or lesser extent, have serious deficits in security, development and democracy. There are many types of security problems, ranging from weak states and rampant international crime to spoilers in post-conflict reconstruction and unpredictable authoritarian leaders who pursue regime security often at the expense of national or regional security. In terms of socio-economic development, most of the countries in the EU’s...

  2. (pp. 11-26)

    Since the 1990s, the promotion of security sector governance has become a recognised item on national and international policy agendas. In the framework of ‘new defence diplomacy’, Western governments began to promote democratic civil-military relations, in particular in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe, bilaterally as well as through multilateral security institutions.⁶ Furthermore, in recognition of the security development nexus, bilateral and multilateral donors started to use the promotion of security sector governance as an instrument to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of development assistance.⁷ Finally, security sector governance issues gained most practical relevance in the context of externally assisted post-conflict...

  3. (pp. 27-42)

    This chapter reviews the EU’s approach to security sector governance and security sector reform. It rests on the assumption that the EU’s efforts to stabilise its neighbourhood have inevitably led to promoting security sector governance in its external policy, and will continue to do so, without necessarily applying the SSR label to these activities. Furthermore, the EU’s nature as a hybrid intergovernmental- supranational organisation would suggest that its security sector governance activities would be pursued by different institutional actors within the Union, and in different policy areas, without these always being linked to each other. In the first section, this...

  4. (pp. 43-60)

    The eastern neighbourhood of the EU ranges from Croatia to Russia, and from Albania to the south Caucasus. It comprises the South-East European countries as well as the EU’s ‘new’ eastern neighbours covered by the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). While the countries of the former group are all eligible for EU membership provided they meet the requirements, those of the latter group do not have such prospects, which in the case of Central and Eastern Europe have proven to be decisive for successful political and economic reforms, including in the security sector.

    South-Eastern Europe is probably the most exciting laboratory...

  5. (pp. 61-80)

    The southern neighbourhood of the EU ranges from the Atlantic coast of Morocco to Syria. Two Mediterranean countries (Cyprus and Malta) joined the Union in 2004; Turkey was accepted as an accession country at the EU summit in Brussels in December 2004. The other countries in the south, the Arab countries of the Maghreb and the Mashraq as well as Israel, do not have any membership prospects. The EU’s entire southern neighbourhood, with the exception of Turkey and Israel, has a serious democracy and freedom deficit.101

    This chapter describes how the EU assumed the task of engaging with Turkey on...

  6. (pp. 81-84)

    This study started out from the assumption that the European Union’s neighbourhood to the east and the south is composed of areas which have to a greater or lesser extent serious deficits in security, development and democracy, and that the combined effects of these deficits constitute a serious challenge for the EU’s own security as well as an impediment to its attempts to create ‘a ring of well governed countries’ in its neighbourhood, as the European Security Strategy puts it. Although the EU is not yet pursuing a comprehensive and coherent policy, it has explicitly or implicitly entered into promoting...